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The fusion gene pair RET--PTC information is not available in COSMIC database.


The fusion gene pair RET--PTC information is not available in CHIMERKB (CHIMERDB 3.0) database.


The fusion gene pair RET--PTC information is available in CHIMERPUB (CHIMERDB 3.0) database.

Fusion_pairTranslocationPMIDDiseaseValidationGene TypeSentence_highlight
RET_PTC- 22895275thyroid carcinoma FISH - This entity shows a PAX8-PPARg fusion gene (associated with FTC), more frequently than BRAF or RET-PTC alterations (associated with PTC). /// "Our findings indicate that molecular heterogeneity, although an uncommon phenomenon, may occur in thyroid carcinoma and demonstrate the coexistence in a case of FV-PTC not only of the histologic but also of the molecular features of both PTC (RET-PTC) and FTC (PAX8-PPARg).. " /// "Herein, we report, for the first time, an FV-PTC with the simultaneous occurrence of both RET-PTC and PAX8-PPARg alterations. "
RET_PTC- 21436994- FISH - In addition, interphase cell preparations of the same cases were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) for the presence of RET/PTC rearrangements using RET-specific DNA probes. /// The comparison of visual and automated scoring of FISH signals revealed concordant results in 19 out of 22 cases (87%) indicating reliable scoring results using the optimised scoring parameter for RET/PTC with the automated Metafer4 system. /// FISH analysis for RET/PTC rearrangements showed prevalence of this rearrangement in 72% (16 out of 22) of cases.
RET_PTC- 20924280- FISH - Cases were evaluated for rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinoma RET/PTC rearrangement by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). /// No BRAF point mutations or RET/PTC rearrangements were identified in the examined cases.
RET_PTC- 25407564- FISH - RET/PTC rearrangement was detected using either RET break-apart FISH followed by multicolor FISH to confirm CCDC6/RET or NCOA4/RET fusions, or by multiplex qPCR to detect 14 RET/PTC subtypes with simultaneous RET mRNA expression. /// Our data reveal that both multiplex qPCR and FISH assays are equally applicable for detection of RET/PTC rearrangements. /// "Among 73 PTC patients with sufficient tissue available for FISH and multiplex qPCR, 10 cases were defined as RET/PTC positive by both assays, including eight CCDC6/RET and two NCOA4/RET fusions with relatively high RET mRNA. " /// "In comparison to FISH, multiplex qPCR displayed 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity to detect RET/PTC fusions, while IHC was neither sensitive nor specific. "
RET_PTC- 25698220follicular adenoma FISH;PCR - This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangement in a cohort of BRAF WT PTCs by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and to search a reliable cut-off level in order to distinguish clonal or non-clonal RET changes. /// Break-apart interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization assay in papillary thyroid carcinoma: on the road to optimizing the cut-off level for RET/PTC rearrangements..
RET_PTC- 23722226thyroid nodule FISH;PCR;RT-PCR - These data corroborate the power of FISH when compared with RT-PCR in quantifying the presence of RET/PTC in FNA and validate the RT-PCR efficiency in detecting clonal RET/PTC alterations. /// Assessing RET/PTC in thyroid nodule fine-needle aspirates: the FISH point of view.. /// "However, there are caveats associated with the use of the molecular approach in fine-needle aspiration (FNA), particularly for RET/PTC, that should be taken into consideration. "
RET_PTC- 19495791thyloid cancer FISH;PCR;RT-PCR - RET/PTC rearrangements arising from a small population of papillary thyroid carcinoma cells, possible candidate for passenger mutation.. /// "However, the prevalence of RET/PTC differs considerably among investigators, and its impact on cancer progression has been controversial. " /// "Even though RET/PTC is a specific genetic event in the carcinomas, our results suggested the possibility of RET/PTC as ""passenger"" abnormalities rather than ""driver"" oncogenic mutation during thyroid cancer progression, warranting further studies on mechanisms and implication of RET gene instability.. " /// The remaining seven tumors with split RET signals had no RET/PTCs amplicon. /// "Among tumors with split RET signals, 36.4% (4/11) of tumors exhibited detectable messenger RNA of RET/PTC1 or RET/PTC3. " /// "In conclusion, the current study disclosed that RET/PTCs occur in a small population of tumor cells in papillary thyroid carcinomas. " /// "In RT-PCR analysis, RET/PTC was found in 28.6% (4/14) of tumors. " /// "FISH DNA probes included RET locus, and PCR primers were designed targeting RET/PTC1 or RET/PTC3. "
RET_PTC- 15356021thyroid carcinoma;papillary carcinoma FISH;PCR;RT-PCR - These findings suggest that because RET/PTC rearrangements are not present in a majority of tumor cells, either a fraction of post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid tumors are of multiclonal origin, or ret rearrangement is a later, subclonal event.. /// Heterogeneity in the distribution of RET/PTC rearrangements within individual post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinomas..
RET_PTC- 18408749- FISH - There are additional alterations in RET/PTC-positive tumours, which may act as modifiers of RET activation. /// "In contrast, alterations in RET/PTC-negative tumours indicate alternative routes of tumour development. " /// "In addition, childhood and adult RET/PTC-positive cases differ significantly for a deletion on the distal part of chromosome 1p. " /// "Specific aberration signatures were identified that discriminated between RET/PTC-positive and RET/PTC-negative cases (aberrations on chromosomes 1p, 3q, 4p, 7p, 9p/q, 10q, 12q, 13q and 21q). " /// Deletions were found more frequently in RET/PTC-positive and RET/PTC-negative tumours than amplifications. /// Array CGH demonstrates characteristic aberration signatures in human papillary thyroid carcinomas governed by RET/PTC.. /// "We applied array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) to 33 PTC (20 PTC from adults, 13 post-Chernobyl PTC from children) with known RET/PTC status. "
RET_PTC- 23966419thyroid adenoma FISH;PCR;RT-PCR - RET/PTC rearrangements are the most frequent genetic alterations associated with radiation-induced PTC, whereas BRAF and RAS mutations and PAX8-PPARG rearrangement have been associated with sporadic PTC. /// The prevalence of RET/PTC1 rearrangement fits with the values recently described in a similar setting.. /// The lesions were screened for the BRAF(V600E) and NRAS mutations and for RET/PTC and PAX8-PPARG rearrangements. /// "RET/PTC1 rearrangement was found, by RT-PCR, in one of 17 cases (5.9%) and by fluorescence in situ hybridization in two of six cases (33%). "
RET_PTC- 18974143thyloid cancer;leukemia FISH - The high prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements in patients who have received external radiation, and the evidence of in vitro induction of RET rearrangements in human cells, suggest an enhanced sensitivity of the RET genomic region to damage by ionizing radiation.
RET_PTC- 22136268thyloid cancer FISH - The aim of this study was to test whether the proximity effects that are observed between loci involved in RET/PTC rearrangements in humans are conserved across different species. /// "Using 3D fixation, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and confocal microscopy, we compared the distance between genes involved in RET/PTC rearrangement in normal thyroid cells from humans, mice, and rats. " /// The differences in nuclear architecture and spatial positioning of genes involved in RET/PTC rearrangements between human and rodent thyroid cells raise a concern about suitability of animal models for assessing RET/PTC-driven thyroid carcinogenesis in humans.. /// "Recently, nuclear architecture and spatial proximity between recombinogenic genes have been implicated as important factors in the generation of RET/PTC and other chromosomal rearrangements in human cells. " /// RET/PTC is a characteristic genetic alteration frequently found in radiation-induced thyroid cancer in human populations. /// "We further observed that in human thyroid cells, mean distance between genes involved in two most common types of RET/PTC, that is, RET and NCOA4 (partners of RET/PTC3) and RET and H4 (partners of RET/PTC1), was 1.08??0.04 and 1.24??0.05??m, respectively. "
RET_PTC- 16331264thyloid cancer FISH - In this study, we use an 18 Mb region on 10q11.2-21 containing the RET gene and its recombination partners, the H4 and NCOA4 (ELE1) genes, as a model chromosomal region frequently involved in RET/PTC rearrangements in thyroid cancer. /// Interphase chromosome folding determines spatial proximity of genes participating in carcinogenic RET/PTC rearrangements.. /// RET/PTC is particularly common in tumors from children exposed to ionizing radiation.
RET_PTC- 19147513- FISH - A total of 57 nonthyroid papillary tumors were examined for RET/PTC rearrangements using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization, Taqman reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. /// No RET/PTC1 rearrangements were detected in the remaining tumor cohort. /// A further case of similar histotype had an alternate RET/ PTC rearrangement. /// The results indicate that RET/PTC rearrangements occur in a small subset of nonthyroid papillary tumors. /// RET/PTC rearrangement occurring in primary peritoneal carcinoma.. /// RET/PTC rearrangements are initiating events in the development of a significant proportion of papillary thyroid carcinomas. /// "In all, 20% (3/15) of primary peritoneal carcinoma had detectable RET/PTC1 rearrangements by all 3 methodologies. " /// "Activated RET/PTC mutations are thought to be restricted to thyroid disease, but this study proposes that these events may also occur in nonthyroid tumors. "
RET_PTC- 16007166papillary carcinoma;thyloid cancer FISH - One tumor without a detectable mutation was predicted by the classifier to have a RET/PTC rearrangement and was shown to contain one by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. /// "The tumors were genotyped for their common activating mutations: BRAF V600E point mutation, RET/PTC1 and 3 rearrangement and point mutations of KRAS, HRAS and NRAS. " /// "By combining expression profiles with mutational status, we defined distinct expression profiles for the BRAF, RET/PTC and RAS mutation groups. " /// "Molecular classification of papillary thyroid carcinoma: distinct BRAF, RAS, and RET/PTC mutation-specific gene expression profiles discovered by DNA microarray analysis.. "
RET_PTC- 9067436thyloid cancer FISH - Its 5' end was found fused to the catalytic domain of the RET protooncogene to generate RET/PTC 1, the most common form of PTC oncogenes in human papillary thyroid carcinoma.
RET_PTC- 15368067medullary carcinoma - - RET/PTC fusion gene rearrangements in Japanese thyroid carcinomas.. /// "RET rearrangements are restricted to a well-differentiated papillary carcinoma, suggesting that RET/PTC positive papillary carcinomas do not progress to undifferentiated carcinoma.. " /// "However, the reported prevalence of RET/PTC activation in papillary carcinoma was variable, and the clinical relevance of RET/PTC rearrangements in papillary carcinomas is still controversial. " /// The prevalence of RET/PTC activation in papillary carcinoma among the Japanese population was higher than in previous reports.
RET_PTC- 20951315thyroid adenoma - - These structural changes lead to the formation of fusion genes RET-PTC, TRK(-T), and BRAF-AKAP9, which originate as a result of intrachromosomal or interchromosomal rearrangements and are found in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
RET_PTC- 26338373thyloid cancer PCR;RT-PCR - The prevalence of RET/PTC fusion genes was examined by quantitative RT-PCR. /// "To improve risk stratification and patient management, we sought to determine the prognostic value of BRAF V600E, NRAS or RET/PTC mutations in patients with PTC measuring <20 ?mm, mainly microPTC. "
RET_PTC- 10369300thyroid carcinoma - - RET/PTC fusion gene products in patients suffering from thyroid carcinomas..
RET_PTC- 9001272hashimoto thyroiditis PCR;RT-PCR - Expression of the RET/PTC fusion gene as a marker for papillary carcinoma in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.. /// "Using a sensitive and specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, we found messenger RNA (mRNA) expression for the RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 oncogenes in 95% of the Hashimoto's patients studied. " /// The newly identified oncogenes RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 provide useful and specific markers of the early stages of papillary carcinoma as they are highly specific for malignant cells.
RET_PTCinv(10) / 1542652- - - In four cases the results indicated that these tumors had RET/PTC activation and a paracentric inversion of the long arm of chromosome 10, inv(10)(q11.2q21), with breakpoints coincident with the regions where RET and D10S170 are located. /// RET/PTC is a transforming sequence created by the fusion of the tyrosine kinase domain of the RET protooncogene with the 5' end of the locus D10S170 designated by probe H4 and is frequently found activated in human papillary thyroid carcinomas. /// "Therefore, a chromosome 10q inversion provides the structural basis for the D10S170-RET fusion that forms the hybrid transforming sequence RET/PTC.. " /// "To identify the mechanism leading to the generation of the oncogenic sequence RET/PTC, a combined cytogenetic and molecular analysis of several cases of papillary thyroid carcinomas was done. " /// Characterization of an inversion on the long arm of chromosome 10 juxtaposing D10S170 and RET and creating the oncogenic sequence RET/PTC..
RET_PTC- 23132790thyroid carcinoma;thyloid cancer PCR;RT-PCR - PTC, the most frequent thyroid carcinoma histotype, is associated with gene rearrangements that generate RET/PTC and TRK oncogenes and with BRAF-V600E and RAS gene mutations. /// "In this study, we demonstrate that the BRAF-V600E, RET/PTC, and TRK oncogenes upregulate the ERK1/2 pathway's attenuator cytoplasmic dual-phase phosphatase DUSP6/MKP3 in thyroid cells. "
RET_PTC- 24591770thyroid carcinoma - - BRAF and RAS mutations and RET/PTC gene rearrangements were found in 65.1%, 0%, and 1.6% of papillary carcinomas, respectively.
RET_PTC- 12383219- - - The RET/PTC gene rearrangement is highly specific for papillary thyroid carcinoma and is associated with the characteristic nuclear features seen in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
RET_PTC- 26635725thyroid carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - Rearranged during transfection (RET)/PTC gene rearrangements, RET mutations, BRAF mutations, RAS mutations, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 angiogenesis pathways are some of the known pathways determinant in the development of TC.
RET_PTC- 26601537papillary adenoma - - [Pooled Analysis of RET/PTC Gene Rearrangement Rate in Sporadic and Radiogenic Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma].. /// The database of publications on molecular epidemiology of RET/PTC rearrangements in sporadic and radiogenic thyroid papillary carcinoma has been formed (197 sources at the end of 2014. /// "The greatest increase in rate after irradiation was found for RET/PTC1, previously characterized in vitro as one of radiogenic types of RET/PTC.. " /// "For rates of RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3 and RET/PTC in total with respect to formed carcinoma striations the following values (pooling, in %) were obtained: sporadic, total--13.2. " /// "Based on this database a pooled analysis of data on the rates of RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3 and RET/PTC in total was conducted. "
RET_PTC- 26310016- - - [RET/PTC Gene Rearrangements in the Sporadic and Radiogenic Thyroid Tumors: Molecular Genetics, Radiobiology and Molecular Epidemiology].. /// " A review of molecular genetic, radiobiological and molecular epidemiological studies of gene (chromosome) rearrangements RET/PTC in the cells of the thyroid gland as well as the laws in relation to radiation exposure in vitro, in vivo and human populations identified with them are submitted. " /// "The information about the history of the RET/PTC discovery, their types, carcinogenic potential and specificity both to tumor and non-tumor thyroid disease especially for papillary thyroid carcinoma are provided. " /// Some information (three publications) about the possibility of RET/PTC induction by low doses of radiation with low LET (to 0.1 Gy) is given and it is concluded that their potential evidentiary is generally weak. /// "The possibility of use of the RET/PTC presence or their frequencies as markers of the papillary thyroid carcinomas and, specifically, their radiogenic forms, is considered. " /// The mechanisms of RET/PTC induction may be associated with DNA double strand breaks and oxidative stress. /// The data (seven studies) on the induction of RET/PTC after irradiation of tumor and normal thyroid cells in vitro and mice are reviewed. /// The achievements in the molecular epidemiology of RET/PTC frequency for exposed and unexposed cohorts are stated. /// The data on the c-RET gene and its chimeric constructs with the gene-donors (RET/PTC rearrangements) are considered.
RET_PTC- 24405857thyroid carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR? gene rearrangements.
RET_PTC- 21511245thyroid nodule;thyroid carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - BRAF(V600E) mutation or/and RET/PTC gene rearrangement have been detected in less than 25% of NI-PTC but in more than 75% of I-PTC.
RET_PTC- 21339735- - - PTC is associated with gene rearrangements generating RET/PTC and TRK oncogenes, and to the BRAFV600E activating point mutation.
RET_PTC- 20099311papillary carcinoma - - Analysis for BRAF and RAS gene mutations and RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARgamma gene rearrangements were performed and correlated with the cytologic features and surgical pathology outcome.
RET_PTC- 26575115thyloid cancer - - We aimed to analyze the frequency of point mutations of BRAF and RAS genes, and RET/PTC, PAX8/PPAR? gene rearrangements in patients with acromegaly having differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) and their relation with clinical and histological features. /// "RET/PTC 1/ 3, PAX8/PPAR? gene rearrangements were not detected in any patient. " /// "BRAF V600E and NRAS codon 61 point mutations, RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, and PAX8/PPAR? gene rearrangements were analyzed in thyroidectomy specimens. "
RET_PTC- 23293329- - - In addition, there are many studies in the literature that propose a genetic link between HT and PTC involving the PI3K/Akt pathway and RET/PTC gene rearrangements.
RET_PTC- 11117782papillary carcinoma - - Because RET/PTC gene rearrangements are specific to papillary thyroid carcinoma, the authors examined the presence of RET/PTC-1, -2, and -3 in eight hyalinizing trabecular tumors using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with Southern hybridization and immunohistochemistry. /// They detected the presence of a RET/PTC gene rearrangement in six of the eight hyalinizing trabecular tumors.
RET_PTC- 10773666- FISH;PCR;RT-PCR - We have developed a dual-color FISH approach to detect RET/PTC rearrangements in interphase nuclei of thyroid lesions. /// "Overall, the FISH approach in interphase nuclei represents a powerful tool for detecting, at the single cell level, RET/PTC rearrangements and other anomalies involving the RET chromosome region.. " /// "Three main rearranged forms of RET have been described: RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3, which arise from a paracentric inversion of the long arm of chromosome 10, and RET/PTC2, which originates from a 10;17 translocation. " /// "Among PTCs, 13 (18.8%) showed a RET rearrangement, and 11 (15.9%) of these carried an inversion (RET/PTC1 or RET/PTC3) in more than 10% of the nuclei examined. "
RET_PTC- 25880213thyroid carcinoma;thyloid cancer FISH;PCR;RT-PCR - Specific nuclear rearrangements were investigated by RT-PCR (RET/PTC) or on isolated nuclei by interphase FISH (PAX8/PPAR?).
RET_PTC- 9814501- PCR;RT-PCR - Distinct multiple RET/PTC gene rearrangements in multifocal papillary thyroid neoplasia.. /// "Multifocal disease, identified in 17 of the 21 patients, exhibited identical RET/PTC rearrangements within multiple tumors in only 2 patients. " /// "In clinically evident tumors, 47% had RET/PTC rearrangements. " /// "Of the 30 tumors (77%) positive for RET/PTC rearrangements, 12 were positive for RET/PTC-1, 3 for RET/ PTC-2, 6 for RET/PTC-3, and 9 for multiple RET/PTC oncogenes. " /// "Our results indicate that RET/PTC oncogene rearrangements may play a role in early-stage papillary thyroid carcinogenesis, but they seem to be less important in determining progression to clinically-evident disease. " /// "PCR products were resolved by gel electrophoresis, and Southern hybridization was performed with RET/PTC-1, -2, and -3 probes. " /// developed PC and to examine the diversity of RET/PTC in multifocal disease. /// "In multifocal disease, the diversity of RET/PTC profiles, in the majority of cases, suggests that individual tumors arise independently in a background of genetic or environmental susceptibility.. " /// "RT and PCR was performed using primers for RET/PTC-1, -2, and -3. " /// RET/PTC expression is highly prevalent in microcarcinoma and occurs more frequently than in clinically evident PC (P < 0.005). /// "We examined the expression of RET/PTC-1, -2, and -3 in human thyroid microcarcinomas and clinically evident PC to determine its role in early stage vs. " /// "Transgenic mice, expressing thyroid-targeted RET/PTC-1, develop PC. "
RET_PTC- 10849090papillary carcinoma - - The expression of RET/PTC fusion gene adds support to the hypothesis that this tumour is a variant of PC, probably related to the oncocytic variant of PC.. /// Warthin-like tumour of the thyroid gland: RET/PTC expression indicates it is a variant of papillary carcinoma.. /// We performed an histological and immunohistochemical study with emphasis on RET/PTC expression. /// An interesting finding was the strong positivity with the antibody against RET/PTC.
RET_PTC- 10931090- PCR;RT-PCR - We found a post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinoma with an RET/PTC-1 rearrangement characterized by a transcript longer than expected. /// "Similar to previously reported PTC-3 variants, long-PTC-1 has been found in a post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinoma confirming that RET/PTC rearrangements other than the classical forms (RET/PTC-1 and -3) are specifically associated with radiation-induced papillary thyroid cancer.. " /// " Two main types of RET/PTC oncogene, named RET/PTC-1 and 3, occur in papillary thyroid carcinomas especially in those from Belarus children after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. " /// "To our knowledge, no variant of RET/PTC-1 has been described up to now. " /// "Several variants of RET/PTC-3 have also been found, having different break points with respect to the classical RET/PTC-3. " /// "In conclusion, we describe here the first variant of RET/PTC-1 oncogene, which we have termed 'long'-PTC-1, characterized by new breakpoints of both genes involved in the rearrangement and having transforming activity. " /// "The RET gene breakpoint occurred within exon 11, at variance with the classical form of RET/PTC-1, in which it is in intron 11. "
RET_PTC- 24862939papillary carcinoma;thyloid cancer PCR - Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for BRAF and RAS mutations (RNA and DNA) as well as for RET/PTC rearrangements and PAX8-PPAR? translocations (RNA).
RET_PTC- 21286310- - - Studies have revealed that DNA breakage at fragile sites can induce formation of RET/PTC rearrangements, and deletions within the FHIT gene, resembling those observed in human tumors.
RET_PTC- 18335752thyroid carcinoma PCR;RT-PCR - To investigate the characteristics of RET/PTC and H47PTEN rearrangement and the association between gene rearrangement and clinicopathological properties of thyroid carcinoma. /// H4-PTEN rearrangement can occur simultaneously with RET/PTC rearrangement in PTC. /// "In 3 cases, both RET/PTC and H4-PTEN were identified simultaneously. " /// "Rearrangement of RET/PTC-1, RET/PTC-2, RET/PTC-3, ELKS-RET and H4-PTEN (H4/PTEN and PTEN/H4) was analyzed in 139 thyroid tumor tissues by using RT-PCR and sequencing. " /// High frequency of lateral neck lymph node involvement was detected in RET/PTC positive PTC (P < 0.01). /// "Twelve RET/PTC-1, 6 RET/PTC-3, 6 H4/PTEN and 7 PTEN/H4 were detected in 126 papillary thyroid carcinomas. "
RET_PTC- 12517951papillary carcinoma - - Thyroid epithelial cells frequently express one or more members of the rearranged during transfection/papillary thyroid carcinoma (RET/PTC) fusion oncogene family during early stages of cancer, and fusion gene transcripts have been found in inflammatory conditions of the thyroid such as the autoimmune disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis. /// "Because these oncogenes encode chimeric proteins, novel RET/PTC epitopes may be targets of antitumor immune responses. "
RET_PTC- 24633422lung cancer;neuroblastoma - - There was notably a lack of mutations in NRAS and BRAF, and no RET/PTC rearrangement.
RET_PTC- 9589668papillary carcinoma PCR;RT-PCR - To investigate the frequency of RET rearrangement in Chinese papillary thyroid carcinomas, we have performed RT-PCR to amplify specific RET/PTC transcripts. /// "Although the cause of the high frequency of RET/PTC oncogenes in Chinese papillary thyroid carcinomas is unknown, our study suggests that RET rearrangement is an important genetic lesion underlying the development of thyroid papillary carcinoma in Taiwan.. " /// "Among the papillary thyroid carcinomas of 11 patients examined, we have identified 2 containing RET/PTC1, 3 containing RET/PTC2, and 1 containing RET/PTC3 oncogenes. " /// "Rearrangement of the RET kinase domain to 3 partner genes has been described, of which the RET/PTC1 is the most common. "
RET_PTC- 21544895thyroid carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - RET (rearranged during transfection)/PTC (papillary thyroid carcinoma) gene rearrangements, B-Raf gene mutations, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) angiogenesis pathways are some of the known genetic alterations playing a crucial role in the development of thyroid cancer.
RET_PTC- 24510380thyroid carcinoma FISH;PCR;RT-PCR - We have developed a home-brew tetracolor break-apart probe able to simultaneously identify the 2 most common genetic alterations in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: RET/PTC variants in papillary thyroid carcinoma and PAX8/PPARg fusion and variants in follicular thyroid carcinoma. /// "The probe was tested on RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARg RT-PCR positive controls, and feasibility was assessed in 368 thyroid nodule fine-needle aspirations (FNA). "
RET_PTC- 12738763thyloid cancer - - RET/PTC (rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinomas) gene rearrangements are the most frequent genetic alterations identified in papillary thyroid carcinoma. /// RET/PTC (rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinomas) tyrosine kinase phosphorylates and activates phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1): an alternative phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent pathway to activate PDK1.. /// RET/PTC and PDK1 colocalize in the cytoplasm. /// "RET/PTC-induced phosphorylation of the Y9 residue results in increased PDK1 activity, decrease of cellular p53 levels, and repression of p53-dependent transactivation. " /// "Moreover, Y9 phosphorylation of PDK1 by RET/PTC does not require phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or Src activity. " /// "In conclusion, RET/PTC-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PDK1 may be one of the mechanisms by which it acts as an oncogenic tyrosine kinase in thyroid carcinogenesis.. " /// "In this report, we show that phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), a pivotal serine/threonine kinase in growth factor-signaling pathways, is a target of RET/PTC. " /// RET/PTC phosphorylates a specific tyrosine (Y9) residue located in the N-terminal region of PDK1. /// Y9 phosphorylation of PDK1 by RET/PTC requires an intact catalytic kinase domain. /// "Although the oncogenic potential of RET/PTC is related to intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, the substrates for this enzyme are yet to be identified. "
RET_PTC- 9466701papillary carcinoma;follicular adenoma PCR;RT-PCR - Our data confirm the crucial role played by the ret proto-oncogene activating rearrangements in the development of radiation-associated thyroid tumors, and show, for the first time, the presence of RET/PTC genes in follicular adenomas appeared after external irradiation.. /// "In our study, we have analyzed for the presence of RET/PTC oncogenes using the RT-PCR, XL-PCR, Southern blot and direct sequencing techniques, 39 human thyroid tumors from patients who had received external radiation for benign or malignant conditions. " /// "2) in contrast with the results obtained in the Chernobyl tumors, the most frequently observed chimeric gene was RET/PTC1. "
RET_PTC- 23837487thyroid nodule;thyroid carcinoma;follicular adenoma PCR - PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements were detected by qPCR, BRAF and RAS mutations by high-resolution melting PCR and by pyrosequencing. /// "While the presence of a BRAF and RET/PTC mutation was associated with cancer in 100% of samples each, the presence of a RAS and PAX8/PPARG mutation was associated with cancer in only 12% and 50% of samples, respectively. "
RET_PTC- 20640859- PCR;RT-PCR - Comprehensive analysis of RET/PTC and NTRK1 rearrangements was carried out by multiplex screening RT-PCR, hybrid-specific RT-PCR and sequencing of detected hybrids. /// "Eight PTCs expressed two different mutations (1 RET/PTC?+?BRAF, 6 NTRK1?+?BRAF, 1 RET/PTC?+?NTRK1). "
RET_PTC- 26825960- PCR - Similarly, DIO3 mRNA levels were higher in PTC samples harboring the BRAF(V600E) mutation as compared with those with RET/PTC1 rearrangement or negative for these mutations (P<0.001). /// "DIO3 mRNA levels and activity were readily detected in K1 (BRAF(V6) (0) (0E)) and, at lower levels, in TPC-1 (RET/PTC1) cells (P<0.007 and P=0.02 respectively). "
RET_PTC- 23025542follicular adenoma PCR;RT-PCR - Detection of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements is feasible in routine air-dried fine needle aspiration smears.. /// These data are the first to show the feasibility of extracting RNA from routine air-dried FNA smears for the detection of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements with RT-qPCR. /// "Similarly, RET/PTC was found in 3 of 96 FFPEs and in 4 of 96 FNAs. " /// "A new method for RNA extraction from routine air-dried FNA smears was established, which allowed analysis for the presence of four variants of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC 1 and RET/PTC 3, which were analyzed in 106 routine FNA smears and the corresponding surgically obtained FFPE tissues using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). "
RET_PTC- 17693984- PCR - Similarly to the results obtained by others, there was no coexistence of BRAF (V600E) mutation and RET/PTC and/or Trk rearrangements or RAS mutation in PTC tissue. /// The high incidence of RET/PTC and Trk rearrangements or point mutations in RAS and c-MET oncogenes are the genetic hallmarks of PTC.
RET_PTC- 16630482lymphocytic thyroiditis PCR;RT-PCR - [Expressions of wildtype-RET and RET/PTC rearrangements in sporadic adult papillary thyroid carcinoma and their clinicopathologic correlation].. /// "(3) Fourteen PTCs (21.2%) expressed RET/PTC, including five cases expressing RET/PTC1 and nine cases expressing RET/PTC3. " /// Six cases (9%) expressed both RET/PTC and WT-RET. /// (4) Statistic analysis did not show any correlation between the expression of WT-RET or RET/PTC and clinicopathologic parameters. /// The expression of RET/PTC was specific to PTC. /// To evaluate the expressions of wildtype-RET (WT-RET) and RET/PTC in sporadic adult papillary thyroid carcinoma and to investigate their clinicopathologic correlation.
RET_PTC- 21498916- PCR;RT-PCR - RET/PTC rearrangements were analyzed by RT-PCR/Southern blotting. /// "The BRAF(V600E) was found in 84/266 (31.6%) cases, RAS mutations in 11/266 (4.1%) and RET/PTC in 55/266 (20.7%. " /// 42/266 (15.8%) RET/PTC1 and 13/266 (4.9%) RET/PTC3).
RET_PTC- 21173509thyroid nodule PCR;RT-PCR - By the higher sensitive Southern-blot on RT-PCR method, RET rearrangements were present in 36% of papillary thyroid carcinomas (RET/PTC-1, 12%. /// Prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangement in benign and malignant thyroid nodules and its clinical application.. /// "These results indicate that molecular testing of thyroid nodules for RET/PTC must take into account of its high prevalence in benign nodules, inducing false positive diagnoses when the highly sensitive assay Southern-blot on RT-PCR is used. " /// "RET/PTC-3, 20%. "
RET_PTC- 12907632papillary carcinoma;melanoma;follicular adenoma PCR - Immunohistochemical staining was conducted to evaluate RET/PTC rearrangements by using two different anti-RET antibodies. /// A second genetic alteration frequently involved in PTC is RET/PTC rearrangements. /// "To test whether BRAF mutation may cooperate with RET/PTC rearrangements in the oncogenesis of PTC, we tested whether BRAF-mutated PTCs were also positive for RET/PTC rearrangements. " /// These observations suggest that mutated BRAF gene may cooperate with RET/PTC to induce the oncogenesis of PTC..
RET_PTC- 9315093papillary carcinoma;follicular adenoma PCR;RT-PCR - In conclusion, our results confirm the crucial role played by the ret proto-oncogene activating rearrangements in the development of radiation-associated thyroid tumors appearing after therapeutic or accidental ionizing irradiation, and show, for the first time, the presence of RET/PTC genes in follicular adenomas appeared after external irradiation.. /// "In the 'spontaneous' tumors, only the papillary carcinomas presented a ret rearrangement (15%:3/20): 1 RET/PTC1, 1 RET/ PTC3 and 1 uncharacterized. " /// "(2) in contrast with the results obtained in the Chernobyl tumors, the most frequently observed chimeric gene was RET/PTC1 instead of the RET/PTC3 and (3) all the tumors were negative for RET/PTC2. "
RET_PTC- 14996725thyloid cancer PCR - Like the previously reported mutually exclusive relationship between BRAF mutation and other Ras pathway components such as RET/PTC rearrangement, a mutually exclusive relationship also exists between BRAF mutation and RASSF1A methylation in thyroid tumorigenesis..
RET_PTC- 10566678papillary carcinoma PCR;RT-PCR - A strong correlation was observed between the solid-follicular subtype of papillary carcinoma and the RET/PTC3 isoform: 19 of the 24 RET/PTC-positive solid-follicular carcinomas harbored a RET/PTC3 rearrangement, whereas only 5 had a RET/PTC1 rearrangement. /// High prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements in Ukrainian and Belarussian post-Chernobyl thyroid papillary carcinomas: a strong correlation between RET/PTC3 and the solid-follicular variant.. /// Taken together these results support the concept that RET/PTC activation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of thyroid papillary carcinomas in both Ukraine and Belarus after the Chernobyl accident.. /// We analyzed 67 post-Chernobyl pediatric papillary carcinomas arising in 1995-1997 for RET/PTC activation: 28 were from Ukraine and 39 were from Belarus. /// "The study, conducted by a combined immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR approach, demonstrated a high frequency (60.7% of the Ukrainian and 51.3% of the Belarussian cases) of RET/PTC activation. "
RET_PTC- 16434896papillary adenoma - - RET/PTC rearrangements presented at younger age and had predominantly typical papillary histology, frequent psammoma bodies, and a high rate of lymph node metastases. /// "It has been recently shown that these tumors commonly have one of three genetic alterations: BRAF point mutations, RET/PTC rearrangements, or RAS point mutations. " /// "Of 96 unselected cases, 42% were positive for BRAF, 18% for RET/PTC, and 15% for RAS mutations. " /// "These findings demonstrate that BRAF, RET/PTC, and RAS mutations are associated with distinct microscopic, clinical, and biologic features of thyroid papillary carcinomas.. "
RET_PTC- 15880523anaplastic thyroid carcinoma PCR - IHC analysis of RET/PTC rearrangements revealed no positive staining of RET in any of 8 ATCs, suggesting that these ATCs are not derived from RET/PTC- rearranged PTC. /// "RET/PTC rearrangements and p53 mutation were monitored by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining by anti-RET antibodies and an anti-p53 mAb, respectively. "
RET_PTC- 25111330thyroid nodule;thyroid carcinoma PCR - After surgery, 115 nodules were confirmed as conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma and 102 (88.70%) of these nodules harbored either the BRAF(V600E) mutation (76.52%) or RET/PTC rearrangements (12.17%). /// "Point mutations and RET/PTC rearrangements, were evaluated by pyrosequencing and TaqMan real-time PCR, respectively. "
RET_PTC- 19208736- PCR - In this study, we examined whether PTC without BRAF(T1799A) mutation and without RET/PTC rearrangement named PTC-ga(-) were distinguishable from PTC-ga(+) (with one or the other gene alteration) on the basis of gene expression characteristics. /// Molecular characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinomas without BRAF mutation or RET/PTC rearrangement: relationship with clinico-pathological features.. /// "In conclusion, we show that PTC without BRAF(T1799A) mutation or RET/PTC rearrangement, mainly corresponding to follicular variants, maintain a thyroid differentiation expression level close to that of normal tissue and should be of better prognosis than PTC with one or the other gene alteration.. "
RET_PTC- 11788678papillary carcinoma PCR;RT-PCR - The general prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangement in thyroid PDC and its impact on patient outcome are unknown. /// "RET/PTC rearrangement, analyzed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry using antibodies specific for the tyrosine kinase and juxtamembrane portions of the RET protein, was identified in 8/62 (12.9%) PDCs. " /// "RET/PTC was more common in cases with histologic evidence indicating coexistence with or possible evolution from a well differentiated papillary carcinoma (5 of 25 tumors, 20%) but did not correlate with other clinicopathologic parameters. " /// The relatively low prevalence of RET activation in PDCs argues against a major role for RET/PTC in the progression from well to poorly differentiated thyroid tumor phenotypes.
RET_PTC- 15716612- - - To evaluate the expression rate of RET/PTC rearrangement and CK19 in PTCs in a Korean population, we studied 115 papillary thyroid carcinomas in 3 mm-core tissue microarray based immunohistochemical analysis. /// RET/PTC and CK19 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma and its clinicopathologic correlation..
RET_PTC- 23414134thyroid carcinoma PCR - The results of this study allow us to conclude that low expression of MLH1 is associated with BRAF V600E mutations, RET/PTC rearrangements and transitions (IDH1 and NRAS) in patients with thyroid carcinoma. /// "In a series of 96 thyroid tumours whose mutational profiles of BRAF, IDH1 and NRAS mutations and RET/PTC were previously determined, we investigated MLH1 and MGMT expression and methylation status by qPCR and methylation-specific PCR after bisulphite treatment, respectively. "
RET_PTC- 25487739- PCR;RT-PCR - Both cytological and histological specimens were investigated by direct sequencing and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for BRAF and RAS mutations and for PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements, respectively.
RET_PTC- 15785245multiple endocrine neoplasia PCR;RT-PCR - Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical analyses were used to identify the RET gene and RET/PTC rearrangements. /// No RET/PTC-3 rearrangement was detected in any specimen. /// "PTCs among Koreans rarely showed RET/PTC rearrangements, but commonly showed increased RET gene expression. " /// There are several conflicting reports on the influences of RET expression and RET/PTC rearrangements on the clinical outcome of thyroid cancers. /// "Therefore, the wild-type RET gene expression and RET/PTC-1, RET/PTC-2, RET/PTC-3 rearrangements were examined in thyroid carcinomas and other thyroid diseases. "
RET_PTC- 19147753- PCR - RET/PTC rearrangements were analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR. /// "In addition, 5 of 54 (9.3%) recurrent PTC patients had both a BRAF mutation and a RET/PTC rearrangement. " /// The RET/PTC rearrangements were detected in 9 of 54 (16.7%) patients. /// "RET/PTC rearrangements, although commonly associated with primary PTCs in younger patients, are uncommonly found in recurrent PTC patients. " /// PTC usually possesses BRAF mutation or RET/PTC rearrangements. /// High rate of BRAF and RET/PTC dual mutations associated with recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma..
RET_PTC- 12457448thyroid carcinoma;papillary carcinoma PCR;RT-PCR - Seventeen PTC from adult patients (85%t) were positive for RET/PTC3. /// "The presence of RET/PTC1, RET/PTC2 and RET/PTC3 activation was analyzed by RT-PCR in twenty PTC from adult patients (age range 24-63 years), one PTC from a 12-year-old boy and anaplastic carcinomas in two adult patients. " /// RET/PTC3 was also identified in PTC from the child and one of the two patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. /// The prevalence of RET/PTC activation in PTC is high and RET/PTC3 is the only type of activation identified in Hong Kong Chinese and is an important genetic event underlying the development of PTC in the population..
RET_PTC- 24798740thyloid cancer PCR - RET/PTC rearrangement was determined by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-sequencing of tumor cDNA. /// "Concomitant BRAF(V600E) and KRAS, or BRAF(V600E) and RET/PTC-1 mutations were found in two CPTC, and six CPTC and one tall-cell variant, respectively. " /// "RET/PTC-1 was detected in nine CPTC, one tall-cell variant, and two FVPTC. " /// "However, although concomitant mutations of RET/PTC, RAS, or BRAF have been reported recently, their significance for tumor progression and survival remains unclear. " /// "Concomitant RAS, RET/PTC, or BRAF mutations in advanced stage of papillary thyroid carcinoma.. "
RET_PTC- 10196666- - - The RET/PTC rearrangements were found in PTC from children contaminated by the Chernobyl fall-out as well as in tumours from patients with a history of therapeutic external radiation, with a frequency of 60-84%. /// The other forms of RET/PTC were observed in only a minority of the post-Chernobyl PTC (< 20%). /// "In two of the post-therapeutic radiation PTC, RET/PTC1 and PTC3 were simultaneously present. " /// "These ret chimeric genes which are due to intra- or inter-chromosomal translocations, were called RET/PTC1 to PTC5. "
RET_PTC- 20101222- - - DNA breaks at fragile sites generate oncogenic RET/PTC rearrangements in human thyroid cells.. /// "Moreover, exposure of human thyroid cells to these chemicals results in the formation of cancer-specific RET/PTC rearrangements. " /// "In this study, we provide structural and biochemical evidence that the RET, CCDC6 and NCOA4 genes participating in two major types of RET/PTC rearrangements, are located in common fragile sites FRA10C and FRA10G, and undergo DNA breakage after exposure to fragile site-inducing chemicals. "
RET_PTC- 22654872thyroid nodule;thyroid carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - RET/PTC Translocations and Clinico-Pathological Features in Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.. /// "Up to now, 13 different types of RET/PTC rearrangements have been reported but the two most common are RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3. " /// "Recently, a diagnostic role of RET/PTC rearrangements has been proposed. " /// The overall prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements varies from 20 to 70% of PTCs and they are more frequent in childhood than in adulthood thyroid cancer. /// "Ionizing radiations are responsible for the generation of RET/PTC rearrangements, as supported by in vitro studies and by the evidence that RET/PTC, and particularly RET/PTC3, are highly prevalent in radiation induced PTC. " /// "In contrast, RET/PTC1 rearrangement does not correlate with any clinical-pathological characteristics of PTC. " /// "The first RET rearrangement, named RET/PTC, was discovered in 1987. " /// Controversial data have been reported on the relationship between RET/PTC rearrangements and the PTC prognosis. /// "Moreover, the RET protein and mRNA expression level did not show any correlation with the outcome of patients with PTC and no correlation between RET/PTC rearrangements and the expression level of the thyroid differentiation genes was observed. "
RET_PTC- 19884740- - - Prevalence of RET/PTC expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma and its correlation with prognostic factors in a north Indian population.. /// "However, uniform techniques of detection and large international collaborative studies could clear the uncertainties regarding the prognostic importance of RET/PTC.. " /// "However, the exact clinical significance of RET/PTC positive histiocytes remained unexplained. " /// The aim of this study was to recognize the prevalence of RET/PTC expression in PTC from the endemically iodine-deficient region in Northern India and to correlate the expression with the clinicopathologic prognostic factors. /// Prevalence of RET/PTC in our study was consistent with the reported prevalence from other geographic areas.
RET_PTC- 16181240papillary carcinoma PCR - These oncogenes act along the RET/PTC(TRK)-RAS-BRAF-MEK-MAPK kinase pathway, mediating a number of cellular fates including growth, proliferation and survival in thyroid cells.
RET_PTC- 16028414thyroid nodule PCR;RT-PCR - Assessment of RET/PTC oncogene activation in thyroid nodules utilizing laser microdissection followed by nested RT-PCR..
RET_PTC- 18498667papillary carcinoma - - RET/PTC (rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinomas) gene rearrangements are the most frequent genetic alterations identified in papillary thyroid carcinoma. /// Modulatory role of phospholipase D in the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 by thyroid oncogenic kinase RET/PTC.. /// "Moreover, the RET/PTC-mediated transcriptional activation of STAT-3 was synergistically increased by over-expression of PLD, whereas the PLD activity as a lipid hydrolyzing enzyme was not affected by RET/PTC. " /// These findings led us to suggest that the PLD synergistically functions to activate the STAT3 signaling by interacting directly with the thyroid oncogenic kinase RET/PTC.. /// "Although it has been established that RET/PTC kinase plays a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cellular transformation, growth, and proliferation in thyroid epithelial cells, the upstream signaling that leads to the activation of RET/PTC is largely unknown. " /// PLD and RET/PTC could be co-immunoprecipitated from cells where each protein was over-expressed. /// "Based on the observation of high levels of PLD expression in human papillary thyroid cancer tissues, we investigated whether PLD plays a role in the regulating the RET/PTC-induced STAT3 activation. " /// "In addition, the activation of PLD by pervanadate triggered phosphorylation of tyrosine 705 residue on STAT-3, and its phosphorylation was dramatically higher in TPC-1 cells (from papillary carcinoma) that have an endogenous RET/PTC1 than in ARO cells (from anaplastic carcinoma) without alteration of total STAT-3 expression. " /// Direct interaction between RET/PTC and PLD was analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation assay.
RET_PTC- 17160155thyroid carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - Molecular factors such as rearrangements of genes RET/PTC, RAS mutations and fusion of, paired box and 8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PAX8/PPARgamma) are also involved in thyroid cancer prognosis, while some others: human Pituitary- Tumor Transforming Gene (e.g.
RET_PTC- 22803838- - - RET/PTC rearrangements were found in 33% of FHCAs and in 38% of FHCCs. /// "In an attempt to clarify this issue, we analysed a series of H?rthle cell tumours for the presence of RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARG rearrangements and BRAF, HRAS and NRAS mutations. " /// RET/PTC rearrangement is prevalent in follicular H?rthle cell carcinomas.. /// An FHCC with a solid/microfollicular growth pattern scored positive for both RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARG rearrangement. /// "Our study has shown a significant association between RET/PTC rearrangements and FHCCs with a solid growth pattern, thus raising the possibility of using tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of patients with FHCCs, which are often refractory to radioiodine treatment.. " /// All RET/PTC-positive FHCCs had a solid pattern of growth.
RET_PTC- 20578891anaplastic thyroid carcinoma - - These include PIK3CA mutations and genomic amplification/copy gain, Ras mutations, PTEN mutations, RET/PTC and PPARgamma/Pax8 rearrangements, as well as amplification/copy gain of PIK3CB, PDK1, Akt, and various receptor tyrosine kinase genes. /// "RET/PTC, Ras, and receptor tyrosine kinase could dually activate the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways. "
RET_PTC- 11429694- - - The RET/PTC oncogenes, generated by chromosomal rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinomas, are constitutively activated versions of protoRET, a gene encoding two protein isoforms of a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor.
RET_PTC- 21878896thyroid nodule;thyloid cancer - - Common mutations found in thyroid cancer are point mutation of the BRAF and RAS genes as well as RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR? chromosomal rearrangements.
RET_PTC- 22323563thyloid cancer - - Our data also raise a possibility that RET/PTC rearrangement can be initiated by a complex DSB that is induced in one of the fusion partner genes.. /// "IR causes double-strand breaks (DSBs), suggesting that such damage leads to RET/PTC, but the rearrangement mechanism has not been established. " /// "Although all but one RE caused DSB in one or more of the three genes involved in RET/PTC, rearrangement was detected only in cells electroporated with either PvuII (25 and 100? U) or StuI (100 and 250 ?U). " /// "Chromosomal rearrangements, such as RET/PTC, are characteristic features of radiation-associated thyroid cancer and can be induced by radiation in vitro. " /// Both enzymes that produced RET/PTC had restriction sites only in one of the two fusion partner genes. /// "Moreover, the two enzymes that produced RET/PTC had restriction sites present in clusters, which was not the case for RE that failed to induce RET/PTC. " /// "To study the mechanism, we explored the possibility of inducing RET/PTC by electroporation of restriction endonucleases (REs) into HTori-3 human thyroid cells. "
RET_PTC- 16946010papillary carcinoma - - RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF mutations in thyroid tumorigenesis.. /// Molecular inhibitors that block RET/PTC or BRAF kinase activity have shown substantial therapeutic effects in the experimental systems and are currently being tested in clinical trials..
RET_PTC- 11927965papillary carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - We tested the prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements in 26 HT, in 6 papillary carcinomas arising in the background of HT, and in 27 papillary carcinomas not associated with HT. /// "These results suggest that, if the association between HT and thyroid cancer exists, its molecular basis is different from RET/PTC rearrangement.. " /// "Recently, 2 studies reported a 95% prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements in histologically benign tissue affected by HT, suggesting that multiple occult tumors exist in HT patients with high frequency. " /// Prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinomas.. /// "We detected no RET/PTC rearrangements in HT or papillary carcinomas arising in the background of HT, in contrast to a 33% prevalence among papillary carcinomas not associated with HT. "
RET_PTC- 15277225thyroid carcinoma - - We tested on thyroid follicular cells the transforming activity of RET(C634S), RET(K603Q), another mutant identified in a kindred with both PTC and MTC, RET(C634R) a commonly isolated allele in MEN2A, RET(M918T) responsible for MEN2B and also identified in kindreds with both PTC and MTC, and RET/PTC1 the rearranged oncogene that characterizes bona fide PTC in patients without MTC. /// The low mitogenic activity of RET point mutants paralleled their reduced kinase activity compared to RET/PTC. /// "We show that the various RET point mutants, but not wild-type RET, scored constitutive kinase activity and exerted mitogenic effects for thyroid PC Cl 3 cells, albeit at significantly lower levels compared to RET/PTC1. "
RET_PTC- 9764818congenital megacolon;multiple endocrine neoplasia;thyroid carcinoma - - Somatic rearrangements of RET, designated RET/PTCs, have been frequently detected in papillary thyroid carcinomas.
RET_PTC- 18546890thyloid cancer - - Genomic alternations, such as RET/PTC and PAX8-PPARgamma1 rearrangements and a mutation in the BRAF gene, play an oncogenic role by preventing thyroid fetal cells from differentiating.
RET_PTC- 17195637- - - RET rearrangement was detected in 9 (12%): RET/PTC1--5, RET/PTC3--2, unspecified RET/PTC--1 and delta RET/PTC--1. /// [Frequency of RET/PTC rearrangement and somatic BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer].. /// Younger tumor patients were mostly prone to RET/PTC rearrangement (p = 0.08).
RET_PTC- 24811481thyroid nodule;papillary carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - Seventeen genetic alterations (BRAF, KRAS, HRAS, and NRAS mutations, PAX8-PPARG and RET-PTC rearrangements) were evaluated by multiplex polymerase chain reaction and liquid bead array cytometry in 769 FNAs that met inclusion criteria. /// "The posttest probability of thyroid cancer was 100% for nodules positive for BRAF or RET-PTC, 70% for RAS or PAX8-PPARG, and 88% for molecular cytology overall. "
RET_PTC- 15356022thyroid carcinoma - - In addition, 17 of the 48 Ukrainian cases showed expression of the RET tyrosine kinase region, indicating the existence of RET/PTC rearrangements.
RET_PTC- 16757533thyloid cancer - - RET/PTC Rearrangement--a link between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer...or not..
RET_PTC- 18757433- - - RET/PTC rearrangements preferentially occurred in papillary thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors exposed to high radiation dose.. /// Papillary thyroid cancer subjects harboring RET/PTC rearrangements developed this cancer earlier than did cases with BRAF(V600E) mutation (P = 0.03). /// RET/PTC rearrangements showed significantly increased frequency with increased radiation dose (P(trend) = 0.002). /// "In childhood papillary thyroid cancer, regardless of history of radiation exposure, RET/PTC rearrangements are a major event. " /// "To clarify which gene alteration, chromosome aberration, or point mutation preferentially occurs in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer, we have performed molecular analyses on RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF(V600E) mutation in 71 papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors (including 21 cases not exposed to atomic bomb radiation), in relation to radiation dose as well as time elapsed since atomic bomb radiation exposure. " /// These results suggest that RET/PTC rearrangements play an important role in radiation-associated thyroid carcinogenesis.. /// "Conversely, in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer among the general population, the most common molecular event is BRAF(V600E) point mutation, not RET/PTC rearrangements. "
RET_PTC- 20526288thyroid carcinoma;follicular adenoma - - One encapsulated carcinoma showed a PAX8/PPARgamma rearrangement, whereas two infiltrative tumors harbored RET/PTC fusions.
RET_PTC- 18283163papillary carcinoma - - To develop a reproducible orthotopic model of papillary thyroid carcinoma for the BRAF(V600E) mutation (GenBank NM004333) and an RET/PTC rearrangement (GenBank M31213) that recapitulates the clinical picture in humans. /// An orthotopic model of papillary thyroid carcinoma was successfully established in nude mice using BRAF-mutated and RET/PTC1-rearranged cell lines. /// Either BRAF-mutated or RET/PTC1-rearranged papillary thyroid carcinoma cells were injected into the thyroid glands of athymic female nude mice. /// All the BRAF-mutated cell lines and 1 selected RET/PTC1-rearranged cell line were 100% tumorigenic in mice.
RET_PTC- 15859312- - - Searching for RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF V599E mutation in thyroid aspirates might contribute to establish a preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.. /// "58% PTCs presented a genetic alteration either RET/PTC rearrangement, BRAF V599E mutation or both: three cases of PTCs (25%) presented a RET/PTC rearrangement. "
RET_PTC- 22150560- - - Altogether, 57 alterations were found in 56 PTCs (55%) corresponding to V600E BRAF in 20.3%, RAS mutations in 12.6%, RET/PTC 1 in 11.6%, RET/PTC 3 in 8.7%, and rearrangement of NTRK in 1.9%. /// RET/PTC (1 and 3) was significantly associated with extrathyroid extension (ET) and lymph node metastasis (es) (LNM). /// There is a relation between the presence of RET/PTC (1 and 3) and the histological and clinical short-term aggressiveness of PTC in the population of young adults. /// "Classic-type PTC was associated with a larger prevalence of alterations, predominantly BRAF and RET/PTC, whereas the follicular variant was chiefly associated with RAS. " /// RET/PTC 1 and 3 was associated with short-term disease dissemination (cervical lymph node recurrences and distant metastases) in young adults (p=0.001).
RET_PTC- 15771616multiple endocrine neoplasia - - More than 10 rearranged forms of RET, referred to as RET/PTC 1-9, ELKS/RET and RFP/RET, have been cloned from sporadic and radiation-associated papillary thyroid carcinomas.
RET_PTC- 24955024thyroid nodule;thyroid carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid nodules can permit to detect many genetic mutations and other molecular alterations, including RAS and BRAF point mutations, PAX8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? and "RET/PTC rearrangements, occurring in thyroid papillary and follicular carcinomas" (more than 70% of cases), which can be used successfully to improve the diagnosis "and the management of patients with thyroid nodules". /// "Testing FNA samples for a panel of mutations that typically includes RAS, BRAF, PAX8/PPAR? and RET/PTC could permit to achieve the biggest diagnostic impact. "
RET_PTC- 10891661thyloid cancer - - 2) the relevant role played by RET/PTC ret proto-oncogene activating rearrangements, in the development of radiation-associated thyroid tumors originated after therapeutic radiation (mainly PTC 1) or the atomic accident of Chernobyl (mainly PTC 3) and 3) suggest that the patients who develop thyroid tumors after a history of irradiation, show a genomic instability consisting in a DNA repair defect..
RET_PTC- 11717536thyroid carcinoma;papillary carcinoma - - Molecular analyses showed a similar prevalence of RET /PTC rearrangements in both groups.
RET_PTC- 19910897thyloid cancer - - Specific genetic lesions are associated to each thyroid tumor histotype: BRAF mutations and RET/PTC and TRK oncogenes have been detected in PTC, whereas FTC is characterized by PAX8/PPARgamma rearrangements and RAS mutations.
RET_PTC- 17006850thyloid cancer - - The presence of BRAF mutation is related to the specific gene expression signature, different than in cancer cases showing RET/PTC rearrangement or no known initiating mutation.. /// "Moreover, BRAF mutation is described more often in older patients, whereas in young patients RET/PTC rearrangements dominate. "
RET_PTC- 21142662thyloid cancer - - Common somatic mutations in BRAF, rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinomas (RET/PTC) and neurotrophin receptor-tyrosine kinase (NTRK) also do not account for the gender disparity in thyroid cancer.
RET_PTC- 18235983thyroid carcinoma;papillary carcinoma - - Our results add to the evidence that, in contrast to follicular variants of oncoPTCs, predominantly follicular oncocytic thyroid tumors harbor neither RET/PTC rearrangements nor BRAF mutations. /// Molecular characterization of oncocytic thyroid malignancies for RET/PTC or BRAF genetic alterations may help with (preoperative) classification and prognostic evaluation of these tumors.. /// "In oncocytic (H?rthle cell, oxyphilic) thyroid tumors, the presence of RET/PTC rearrangements is associated with either the conventional papillary histotype or the ""solid"" H?rthle cell tumors, whereas all predominantly follicular oncocytic carcinomas do not harbor RET/PTC chimeras. "
RET_PTC- 22494995- - - In addition, the molecular tests did not reveal BRAF mutations, RET/PTC rearrangement, APC mutation, or KRAS mutation..
RET_PTC- 19060924- - - Given that XB130 is a thyroid-specific tyrosine kinase substrate, we asked whether it is targeted by RET/PTC, a genetically rearranged, constitutively active, thyroid-specific tyrosine kinase that plays a pathogenic role in papillary thyroid cancer. /// We identified tyrosine 54 of XB130 as the major target of RET/PTC-mediated phosphorylation and a critical binding site for the SH2 domains of p85alpha. /// "Importantly, downregulation of XB130 in TPC1 papillary thyroid cancer cells, harboring the RET/PTC1 kinase, strongly reduced Akt activity without altering ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and concomitantly inhibited cell-cycle progression and survival in suspension. " /// "RET/PTC induced robust tyrosine phosphorylation of XB130, which promoted its subsequent association with the p85alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). " /// "In conclusion, XB130 is a novel substrate of the RET/PTC kinase that links RET/PTC signaling to PI 3-kinase activation, and thereby plays an important role in sustaining proliferation and survival of thyroid tumor cells.. " /// "XB130, a tissue-specific adaptor protein that couples the RET/PTC oncogenic kinase to PI 3-kinase pathway.. "
RET_PTC- 21739166thyroid nodule;thyroid carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - Non-overlapping genetic alterations, including BRAF and RAS point mutations, and RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR? rearrangements, are found in more than 70% of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas.
RET_PTC- 11786418- - - Whereas the prevalences of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 were almost equal in classic and follicular PTC, all of the TCV-positive cases expressed the RET/PTC3 rearrangement. /// "In conclusion, we postulate that the correlation between the RET/PTC rearrangement type and the aggressiveness of human PTC is related to the efficiency with which the oncogene subtype delivers mitogenic signals to thyroid cells.. " /// We have expressed the two oncogenes in PC Cl 3 rat thyroid epithelial cells and found that RET/PTC3 is endowed with a strikingly more potent mitogenic effect than RET/PTC1. /// These findings prompted us to compare RET/PTC3 and RET/PTC1 in an in vitro thyroid model system. /// RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 are the most prevalent variants. /// "RET tyrosine kinase rearrangements, which represent the most frequent genetic alteration in PTC, lead to the recombination of RET with heterologous genes to generate chimeric RET/PTC oncogenes. "
RET_PTC- 20001715thyloid cancer - - Common genetic alterations found in human papillary thyroid cancer such as RET/PTC rearrangements or the BRAF(V600E) mutation have genetically modified mouse counterparts.
RET_PTC- 16299399papillary carcinoma - - Alterations in the BRAF gene do not overlap with RAS mutations and RET/PTC rearrangement, indicating that activation of one of the effectors of the MAPK pathway is sufficient for papillary thyroid carcinogenesis.
RET_PTC- 22481925thyloid cancer - - Moreover, RET/PTC rearrangements and the BRAFV600E mutation were identified in 5/18 and 2/18 PTCs, respectively.
RET_PTC- 23461584thyroid carcinoma;adenocarcinoma - - Following identification of RET, it was found that somatic rearrangements of this gene, conventionally designated as RET/PTC, are frequently present in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
RET_PTC- 21403618thyroid carcinoma;papillary carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - Molecular-biological studies of PTC revealed more common RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements (34.3% of cases), than BRAFV600E mutation (24%cases). /// RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF(V600E) mutation were analyzed in 35 cases of PTC. /// PTC with any RET/PTC rearrangements had more aggressive behavior than BRAF(V600E)-positive tumors or PTC without gene alterations..
RET_PTC- 18519677thyloid cancer - - RET/PTC rearrangements are one of the genetic hallmarks of papillary thyroid carcinomas. /// RET/PTC-induced cell growth is mediated in part by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation: evidence for molecular and functional interactions between RET and EGFR.. /// "Conditional activation of RET/PTC oncoproteins in thyroid PCCL3 cells markedly induced expression and phosphorylation of EGFR, which was mediated in part through mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. " /// "Based on the observation that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitor PKI166 decreased RET/PTC kinase autophosphorylation and activation of downstream effectors in thyroid cells, despite lacking activity on the purified RET kinase, we proceeded to examine possible functional interactions between RET/PTC and EGFR. " /// "RET/PTC oncoproteins lack extracellular or transmembrane domains, and activation takes place through constitutive dimerization mediated through coiled-coil motifs in the NH(2) terminus of the chimeric protein. "
RET_PTC- 15145515papillary carcinoma - - We analyzed the prevalence of BRAF point mutations and RET/PTC rearrangements in 55 post-Chernobyl papillary carcinomas, compared with 82 sporadic papillary carcinomas. /// "Sporadic papillary carcinomas revealed a clearly distinct pattern, with 37% of tumors harboring BRAF mutations and 20% RET/PTC rearrangements. " /// Radiation-induced tumors demonstrated a low prevalence (4%) of BRAF point mutations and high prevalence (58%) of RET/PTC rearrangements.
RET_PTC- 18406659colorectal cancer - - Preliminary results from our molecular oncology studies on adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer provide evidence for the induction of RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF point mutation (both known to be early stage events in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer) but with a difference: cases associated with the rearrangements were more frequent at high doses, and developed sooner than those with BRAF mutation.
RET_PTC- 24955023- - - Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting BRAF-mediated events, vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, RET/PTC rearrangements, and other molecular targets, show promising results to improve treatment of radioiodine resistant, recurrent, and aggressive PTC.
RET_PTC- 24452016thyloid cancer - - Genomic alternations, such as RET/PTC and PAX8-PPAR?1 rearrangements and a mutation in the BRAF gene, play an oncogenic role by preventing thyroid fetal cells from differentiating.
RET_PTC- 21470995thyloid cancer - - We aimed to compare the effect of four TK inhibitors (axitinib, sunitinib, vandetanib, and XL184) on cell proliferation, RET expression and autophosphorylation, and ERK activation in cell lines expressing a MEN2A (MTC-TT), a MEN2B (MZ-CRC-1) mutation, and a RET/PTC (TPC-1) rearrangement.
RET_PTC- 15763659- - - A high (47%) prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements was found in HTT. /// "In this study, we investigated the prevalence of B-raf point mutations, RET/PTC rearrangements and N-ras point mutations in a large HTT series (28 samples). " /// Molecular profile of hyalinizing trabecular tumours of the thyroid: high prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements and absence of B-raf and N-ras point mutations.. /// "These findings suggest that, although RET/PTC, N-ras, and B-raf proteins may act along the same signalling cascade, the biological and morphological outcome of their oncogenic activation is not completely overlapping. "
RET_PTC- 19627734- - - Chromosomal RET rearrangements, called RET/PTC, result in constitutive ligand-independent activation of RET kinase, which was the first genetic anomaly detected in PTC and is found in 5-70% of tumoral samples. /// Affected elements include RET/PTC rearrangements and point mutations of the Ras and BRAF genes. /// "However, no clear association has been found between RET/PTC and clinical features. "
RET_PTC- 26649796thyroid carcinoma - - Thyroid tissue blocks from 42 consecutive pediatric WDTC patients who underwent thyroidectomy between 2001 and 2013 were analyzed at Quest Diagnostics for BRAF(V600E), RAS mutations (N,K,H), and RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR? rearrangements, using validated molecular methods. /// "Of patients with BRAF(V600E), 77.8% were Hispanic and 88.9% were >15 years, while all RET/PTC-positive patients were ?15 years (p?=?0.003). " /// "Mutations were noted in 21/39 (53.8%), with both BRAF(V600E) (n?=?9), and RET/PTC (n?=?6) detected only in PTC. " /// "Of 28 PTC patients, 57.1% had mutations: 32.1% with BRAF(V600E), 21.4% with RET/PTC, and 3.6% with NRAS. "
RET_PTC- 17725429thyroid carcinoma - - We screened for mutations in the most relevant oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes affected in thyroid carcinogenesis: RAS, BRAF, CTNNB1, and TP53 along with RET/PTC rearrangements. /// "The panel of cell lines we have studied displayed activation of several oncogenes (BRAF, RAS, RET/PTC) and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TP53) known to be important for thyroid carcinogenesis. "
RET_PTC- 15689324thyroid carcinoma - - Papillary thyroid carcinomas are characterized in 70% of cases by the presence of either a RET/PTC rearrangement, or an activating point mutation of RAS or BRAF genes that induce a constitutive activation of the MAP kinase pathway.
RET_PTC- 24248188thyloid cancer - - The increased incidence is not likely to be due to environmental or therapeutic radiation because the percentage of RET/PTC rearrangements decreased.. /// The proportion of RET/PTC rearrangements decreased from 11% to 2% (P = .038). /// "We identified and histologically reviewed 469 consecutive cases of PTC from one US institution from 4 preselected periods (1974 to 1985, 1990 to 1992, 2000, and 2009) and assessed BRAF and RAS point mutations and RET/PTC rearrangements among 341 tumors ?0.3 cm in size. "
RET_PTC- 24503805- - - No RET/PTC rearrangements or BRAF-V600E mutation, which are the two most common genetic alterations detected in papillary thyroid carcinoma, were found.
RET_PTC- 20860421thyroid nodule - - Are RET/PTC rearrangements in benign thyroid nodules of biological significance?.
RET_PTC- 19764411thyroid carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - Genomic alternations, such as RET/PTC and PAX8-PPARgamma1 rearrangements and a mutation in the BRAF gene, play an oncogenic role by preventing thyroid fetal cells from differentiating.
RET_PTC- 23298138thyroid carcinoma - - To date, four types of somatic genetic alterations are known to hold potential interest for the diagnosis and/or prognosis of follicular cell-derived thyroid carcinomas: BRAF and RAS mutations, and RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR? rearrangements.
RET_PTC- 17727338thyroid nodule - - No PTC case was found positive at the same time for BRAF mutation and RET/PTC rearrangements. /// "In our series, RET/PTC rearrangement was detected in only one case of PTC, whereas it was not present in any case of adenoma, goiter, or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. " /// Samples were also examined for RET/PTC rearrangements. /// "BRAF(V600E) mutation detected on FNAB specimens, more than RET/PTC rearrangements, is highly specific for PTC and its routine research might well be an adjunctive and integrative diagnostic tool for the preoperative diagnostic iter.. " /// Fine-needle aspiration molecular analysis for the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma through BRAF V600E mutation and RET/PTC rearrangement..
RET_PTC- 20628483thyloid cancer - - In cases, RET/PTC rearrangements are found in 30%-40%, RAS mutations in about 10%, and BRAF mutations in around 40%-50%, with no overlap between these mutations results in papillary thyroid cancer, while a higher prevalence of BRAF mutations (up to 70%) has been observed in DeTC.
RET_PTC- 26927651thyroid nodule;thyroid carcinoma;papillary carcinoma - - Carney defended the benign nature of this condition and therefore continues calling it adenoma, the World Health Organization calls for the potential of tumor malignancy, and others qualify it as a variant of papillary carcinoma based on the presence of rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinoma (RET/PTC) rearrangements.
RET_PTC- 21725210thyloid cancer - - We conclude that sunitinib effectively inhibits RET/PTC rearrangement cells but not BRAF mutated cells. /// "Immunoblotting revealed effective blocking of MEK/ERK pathway in RET/PTC rearrangement cells, but not in BRAF mutated cells. " /// Cell cycle analysis showed G1 arrest in RET/PTC rearrangement cells. /// Sunitinib inhibits papillary thyroid carcinoma with RET/PTC rearrangement but not BRAF mutation.. /// "Cell growth of papillary thyroid cancer cells with RET/PTC rearrangement was effectively inhibited at low doses of sunitinib (IC50=0.658 ?M), whereas that of BRAF mutated cells required higher doses. " /// "We investigated the effect of sunitinib on papillary thyroid carcinoma cells harboring RET/PTC rearrangement and BRAF mutation using TPC-1M, SNU-790, and B-cPAP cell lines. " /// In vivo orthotopic thyroid cancer mouse model demonstrated statistically significant tumor growth inhibition by sunitinib in RET/PTC rearrangement cancer cells.
RET_PTC- 26868437thyroid carcinoma - - 5 years after the discovery of RET/PTC rearrangements in PTC, activating point mutations in the RET proto-oncogene were discovered in both hereditary and sporadic forms of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). /// "The diagnostic and prognostic role of the RET/PTC rearrangements in PTC is less relevant but still important in patient management, particularly for deciding if a targeted therapy should be initiated. " /// "For many years, it was thought that these genetic alterations only occurred in PTC, but, in the past couple of years, some RET/PTC rearrangements have been found in other human tumours. "
RET_PTC- 23014067thyloid cancer - - In the last years it has been observed an important change in the oncogenic pattern of PTC with a significant reduction of RET/PTC rearrangements and an increase of BRAFV600E mutation suggesting a change in pathogenic events. /// The unique well-demonstrated risk factor of DTC is the exposure to external radiation which is also correlated with the presence of RET/PTC rearrangements.
RET_PTC- 25333496thyroid nodule;thyloid cancer - - A molecular profile including BRAF and RAS mutations as well as RET/PTC rearrangement evaluation has been proposed to provide an accurate presurgical assessment of thyroid nodules and to reduce the number of unnecessary diagnostic surgeries, sparing patients' health and saving healthcare resources. /// "In addition, we found RET/PTC rearrangements in benign lesions, indicating that this molecular marker might not be useful for the detection of thyroid cancer. " /// Relevance of BRAF(V600E) mutation testing versus RAS point mutations and RET/PTC rearrangements evaluation in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer.. /// "BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis is superior to RAS point mutations and evaluation of RET/PTC rearrangements in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer, even in indeterminate lesions.. " /// "Our aims were to evaluate the diagnostic utility of assessing the presence of BRAF and RAS mutations and RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements in all cytological categories in an Italian group of thyroid nodule patients assessed prospectively, and to understand whether and which mutation testing might be helpful in cytologically indeterminate nodules. " /// "On the contrary, RAS and RET/PTC analysis did not further increase diagnostic sensitivity for thyroid cancer. "
RET_PTC- 22928011thyloid cancer - - XB130, a novel adaptor protein, mediates RET/PTC chromosome rearrangement-related thyroid cancer cell proliferation and survival through phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. /// "To determine whether RET/PTC is required of XB130-related cancer cell proliferation and survival, WRO thyroid cancer cells (with RET/PTC mutation) and A549 lung cancer cells (without RET/PTC) were treated with XB130 siRNA, and multiple Akt down-stream signals were examined. " /// "Recently, XB130 was found in different cancer cells in the absence of RET/PTC. "
RET_PTC- 11370535thyroid carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - The last group features the oncogenes (RET and RET/PTC rearrangements).
RET_PTC- 23436219thyloid cancer - - RET/PTC (ret proto-oncogene/papillary thyroid carcinoma) rearrangements were most common (35%), followed by BRAF (15%) and RAS (8%) point mutations. /// "A significant negative association with (131) I dose for BRAF and RAS point mutations and a significant concave association with (131) I dose, with an inflection point at 1.6 Gy and odds ratio of 2.1, based on a linear-quadratic model for RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR? rearrangements were found. " /// RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR? chromosomal rearrangements in post-Chernobyl thyroid cancer and their association with iodine-131 radiation dose and other characteristics.. /// "These data support the relationship between chromosomal rearrangements, but not point mutations, and (131) I exposure and point to a possible role of iodine deficiency in generation of RET/PTC rearrangements in these patients.. "
RET_PTC- 16264407papillary carcinoma;follicular adenoma - - For PTC, tumors negative for RET/PTC rearrangements were preferred.
RET_PTC- 12075413- - - RET/PTC rearrangements in Hashimoto's thyroiditis..
RET_PTC- 21526955thyroid nodule;thyroid carcinoma;papillary carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - The most common molecular alterations in thyroid cancer include BRAF and RAS point mutations and RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR ? rearrangements. /// "The diagnostic role of BRAF mutations has been studied most extensively, and recent studies also demonstrated a significant diagnostic utility of RAS, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPAR ? mutations, particularly in thyroid fine-needle aspiration samples with indeterminate cytology. "
RET_PTC- 15681856anaplastic thyroid carcinoma;papillary adenoma - - In thyroid papillary carcinomas at least three initiating events may occur, which are point mutations in the BRAF and RAS genes and RET/PTC rearrangements.
RET_PTC- 23404751thyloid cancer - - Papillary thyroid carcinomas harbor point mutations of the BRAF and RAS genes or RET/PTC rearrangements, all of which activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. /// "Molecular testing for BRAF, RAS, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPAR? for follicular lesion of undetermined significance and follicular neoplasm improve specificity, whereas molecular classifiers may add negative predictive value to fine needle aspiration diagnosis.. "
RET_PTC- 8570194hirschsprung disease - - RET is activated, as RET/PTC oncogene, by somatic rearrangements which link the TK domain to a constitutive dimerization interface in papillary thyroid carcinomas. /// We have compared the biological and biochemical activity of the TK domains of the wild type and MEN 2B Ret in the context of the RET/PTC.
RET_PTC- 20447069thyloid cancer - - A RET/PTC rearrangement was also found in 41% of non-neoplastic thyroiditis tissues, contralateral to tumours harbouring either RET/PTC or BRAF mutations. /// The strong association between RET/PTC1 and thyroiditis points to a critical role of this oncoprotein in the modulation of the autoimmune response. /// "The two groups did not show significant differences in clinical and prognostic features, whereas they harboured a significantly different genetic background (P = 0.001), with RET/PTC1 being more represented in PTCs associated with autoimmunity, and BRAF(V600E) in patients with PTC alone. " /// "The expression of genes encoding CCL20, CXCL8 and l-selectin was significantly higher in PTC specimens (either with RET/PTC, BRAF(V600E) or unknown genetic lesion) compared with normal thyroid samples. "
RET_PTC- 10027006thyroid carcinoma - - The RET/PTC oncogene, a rearranged form of the RET proto-oncogene, has been found to be associated with human papillary thyroid carcinomas. /// "To investigate whether RET/PTC causes papillary thyroid carcinoma, we generated a transgenic mouse model of papillary thyroid carcinoma with targeted expression of RET/PTC1 in the thyroid gland. " /// The time of tumor onset appears to be dependent on the expression level of RET/PTC1 in these transgenic mice. /// "Finally, in order to investigate whether tumors induced by RET/PTC3 are more aggressive than those tumors induced by RET/PTC1, we also generated thyroid-targeted RET/PTC3 transgenic mice.. " /// This finding suggests that signaling pathways mediated by one or more of these three phosphotyrosine binding sites are essential for RET/PTC1 to induce thyroid tumor development. /// Initial characterization of the thyroid glands of these RET/PTC1 triple-mutant transgenic mice showed no change in follicular morphology or radioiodide-concentrating activity. /// "Thyroid tumors in these RET/PTC1 transgenic mice are characterized by a slow growth rate, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-responsive tumor progression, and loss of radioiodide-concentrating activity despite continued expression of thyroglobulin (Tg). " /// Thyroid carcinomas in RET/PTC transgenic mice.. /// "In high-copy RET/PTC1 transgenic mice, cellular abnormalities, including a slightly increased proliferation rate, aberrant follicle formation, and loss of radioiodide-concentrating activity, can be readily identified at embryological day 18. " /// "To identify which signaling pathway or pathways perturbed by RET/PTC1 are essential for RET/PTC1 to induce tumor development, we generated transgenic mice carrying a thyroid-targeted RET/PTC1 triple mutant, which contains tyrosine to phenylalanine mutations at tyrosine residues 294, 404, and 451. "
RET_PTC- 22248969thyloid cancer - - Gene alterations, such as RET mutation or RET/PTC rearrangement, are not uncommon.
RET_PTC- 17627253- - - The results of studies, focused on the correlation between tumour genotype and the histopathological type of tumour, involving cases of both RET/PTC and Trk rearrangements in PTC, are not unequivocal.
RET_PTC- 18948674- - - In this study, we analyzed the mutational status of RAP1 gene in 36 Russian patients with PTCs without RET/PTC rearrangement, BRAF mutation or RAS mutation.
RET_PTC- 10646664papillary carcinoma PCR;RT-PCR - The prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangement in papillary thyroid carcinomas has been found to vary widely in different populations. /// "However, we could not find RET/PTC-3 rearrangement in any patients (0/31). " /// Detection of RET/PTC oncogene rearrangements in Korean papillary thyroid carcinomas.. /// "In conclusion, we report RET/PTC rearrangements in 4 of 31, (12.9%) Korean patients with papillary thyroid carcinomas, a higher prevalence than previously reported in this population.. " /// "We have performed this study in order to examine the prevalence of RET/PTC-1, RET/PTC-2, and RET/PTC-3 rearrangements in Korean papillary thyroid carcinomas, and to ascertain its clinical relevance. " /// "In addition, there are some disagreements about the correlation of RET/PTC expression with clinical aggressiveness. " /// "We identified two tumors containing RET/PTC-1 (2/31, 6.5%) and two containing RET/PTC-2 (2/31, 6.5%). "
RET_PTC- 22503804thyroid carcinoma;papillary carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - It is indeed now known that BRAF and RAS mutations and RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR? rearrangements account for the majority of molecular alterations detected in differentiated thyroid cancers. /// "Testing for a ""panel of mutations"" (BRAF, RAS, RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR?) improves the performance, detecting papillary carcinomas with non-classic histology. "
RET_PTC- 17954023- PCR;RT-PCR - RET/PTC-1 and RET/PTC-3 were detected in 126 PTCs using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and direct sequencing. /// High frequency of level II-V lymph node involvement in RET/PTC positive papillary thyroid carcinoma.. /// The RET/PTC positive patients should receive more attention to lateral neck in the management of PTC.. /// RET/PTC-1 positive patients were more likely to suffer from Hashimoto's thyroiditis simultaneously (P=0.02) while RET/PTC-3 positive patients had a higher frequency of extrathyroidal extension (P<0.01) and advanced T classification (P<0.01). /// RET/PTC-1 and RET/PTC-3 are associated with different clinical pathological characteristics but not with lymph node involvement.
RET_PTC- 22123232thyroid nodule;thyloid cancer - - Various authors have successfully utilized molecular panels on cytologic specimens including mutations and rearrangements such as RAS and RET/PTC.
RET_PTC- 17464312- - - The T1799A missense mutation in exon 15 of the BRAF gene and RET/PTC rearrangement have been identified as the dominant genetic tumour initiation events in the pathogenesis of PTC leading to a constitutive activation of the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. /// All seven samples expressed the RET tyrosine kinase domain but lacked its extracellular domain potentially suggesting the existence of rare types of RET/PTC rearrangement in the four remained cases of diffuse sclerosing variant of PTC. /// Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: lack of BRAF mutation but occurrence of RET/PTC rearrangements.. /// "In order to elucidate the pathogenesis of diffuse sclerosing variant of PTC, the prevalence of BRAF mutation and RET/PTC were determined by RT-polymerase chain reaction and DNA-sequence analysis in tumour samples of seven patients with this variant (all female, age range 15-61 years, mean 33.3 years) without prior radiation exposure. " /// "Regarding this subtype, our study confirmed the paradigm of a mutual exclusivity between RET/PTC and BRAF in PTC. " /// "RET/PTC1 (two out of seven) and RET/PTC3 (one out of seven), which have been shown in large PTC series to comprise together more than 90% of RET/PTC types, were found in <50% of the cases investigated. "
RET_PTC- 25427145thyloid cancer PCR - None of the cell lines have RET/PTC rearrangements.
RET_PTC- 19374919thyroid carcinoma - - oncogenic RET mutations in medullary thyroid carcinoma or RET/PTC rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinoma).
RET_PTC- 25629769thyroid nodule;thyroid carcinoma - - PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, while BRAF and RAS mutations were detected by pyrosequencing.
RET_PTC- 19766698thyroid cancer - - Several types of rearrangement known to occur in thyroid cancer, including RET/PTC, NTRK1 and BRAF/AKAP9, are more common in radiation-associated thyroid tumors and RET/PTC can be induced experimentally by exposing human thyroid cells to ionizing radiation. /// "In this review, the molecular mechanisms of generation of RET/PTC and other chromosomal rearrangements are discussed, with the emphasis on the role of nuclear architecture and interphase gene proximity in the generation of intrachromosomal rearrangements in thyroid cells.. "
RET_PTC- 21411555thyroid nodule - - High growth rate of benign thyroid nodules bearing RET/PTC rearrangements.. /// "After 36 months of follow-up, the RET/PTC+ group (n = 16) reached a volume higher than the RET/PTC- group (n = 90) (5.04 ?? 2.67 vs. " /// The aim of the present work was to evaluate whether RET/PTC in benign thyroid nodules associates with a different nodular growth rate. /// The difference between the mean baseline nodular volume of the RET/PTC- and RET/PTC+ nodules was not significant. /// "The RET/PTC oncogene has been documented in a fraction of benign thyroid nodules, besides papillary thyroid carcinomas, and it might therefore influence their growth. " /// RET/PTC was present in 19 nodules.
RET_PTC- 26486481autoimmune thyroiditis - - For example: RET/PTC rearrangements could be more often found in carcinomas associated with CLT, but this mutation could be found in benign lesions such as CLT, as well.
RET_PTC- 20738253thyloid cancer - - Molecular studies have identified activation of the RET/PTC rearrangement-induced MAPK signaling pathway as the driving force in the development of PTC in the context of HT.
RET_PTC- 15356020thyroid carcinoma - - Using the same methodology, we have analyzed 34 post-Chernobyl PTC and detected RET/PTC rearrangements in 14 (41%) and BRAF mutations (V600E) in four (12%).
RET_PTC- 22745248- - - The genetic profile of PTC changed over the last 15 yr, with a significant decrease in the prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements and an increase in BRAF(V600E) mutations. /// "In particular, the frequency of RET/PTC rearrangements decreased from 1996-2010, occurring in 33 of 100 (33%) of the patients in group 1, 26 of 148 (17%) in group 2, and 15 of 153 (9.8%) in group 3. "
RET_PTC- 10196674papillary carcinoma;thyloid cancer;follicular adenoma - - RET/PTC rearrangements are found in 60-80% of papillary carcinomas and in 45% of adenomas occurring after radiation exposure.
RET_PTC- 11298625- - - in only three was this explained by expression of a RET/PTC rearrangement. /// Sixty-one PTCs were analysed for expression of RET and the oncogenes RET/PTC1-4 by polymerase chain reaction of complementary DNA. /// "One tumour expressed RET/PTC3, one a variant of RET/PTC3, and one RET/PTC1 and WT-RET simultaneously. "
RET_PTC- 12881714follicular adenoma - - The BRAF(V599E) mutation appears to be an alternative event to RET/PTC rearrangement rather than to RAS mutations, which are rare in PTC. /// BRAF mutations and RET/PTC rearrangements are alternative events in the etiopathogenesis of PTC.. /// PTC with RET/PTC rearrangement as well as the TPC-1 cell line (the only one harboring RET/PTC rearrangement) did not show the BRAF(V599E) mutation. /// BRAF(V599E) may represent an alternative pathway to oncogenic MAPK activation in PTCs without RET/PTC activation..
RET_PTC- 14534528- - - Here, we test whether the oncoprotein RET/PTC could be responsible for this effect, since RET/PTC rearrangements are quite prevalent in PTC and RET/PTC activates PLCgamma, an upstream modulator of PKCs. /// "Activation was restricted to PKCepsilon, as acute expression of RET/PTC did not change the subcellular distribution of other PKC isozymes expressed in PCCL3 cells. " /// Acute expression of RET/PTC induces isozyme-specific activation and subsequent downregulation of PKCepsilon in PCCL3 thyroid cells.. /// Prolonged RET/PTC expression (2-6 days) produced an isozyme-specific change in PKCepsilon subcellular localization and a decrease in total PKCepsilon levels. /// "At 3 h after induction of RET/PTC1 or RET/PTC3 expression, there was evidence of PKCepsilon activation. " /// "However, downregulation of total PKCepsilon levels was only partially prevented by expression of RET/PTC(Y541F). " /// "Based on our previous observation that PCCL3 cells expressing a dominant-negative PKCepsilon are also markedly resistant to apoptosis, we propose that selective downregulation of PKCepsilon following prolonged RET/PTC activation promotes cell survival and clonal expansion.. " /// Cells with decreased PKCepsilon following prolonged expression of RET/PTC were relatively resistant to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis.
RET_PTC- 19147628thyroid carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - The molecular pathology of thyroid cancer is now better understood because of our ability to identify RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF mutations in the aetiopathogenesis of the large majority of PTCs and the high prevalence of RAS mutations and PAX8/PPARgamma rearrangements in follicular patterned carcinomas (FTCs and follicular variant of PTCs). /// "For simplicity, the review is divided up according to the major genetic alterations identified in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (RET/PTC rearrangements, BRAF mutations, RAS mutations and mitochondrial DNA deletions and mutations) and their respective treatments.. "
RET_PTC- 18018555thyloid cancer - - Molecular mechanism of thyroid carcinogenesis has been well studied through the discovery of genetic abnormalities such as RET/PTC rearrangement and BRAF mutation, both of which constitutively activate MAP kinase pathway and are frequently found in papillary thyroid cancer.
RET_PTC- 18437172thyroid carcinoma;papillary carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - Most common mutations in papillary carcinomas are point mutations of the BRAF and RAS genes and RET/PTC rearrangement.
RET_PTC- 22442268thyroid carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - Sunitinib was found to selectively inhibit cell proliferation, induce cell accumulation in the G0-G1 phase, and inhibit the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in both KRAS/BRAF wild-type thyroid cancer cells and in tumor cells harboring the RET/PTC rearrangement, whereas it was completely ineffective in KRAS- or BRAF-mutated thyroid carcinoma cells. /// " Sunitinib is currently being evaluated in advanced human thyroid carcinomas, based on the rationale that the vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor receptors and the RET/PTC rearrangement are valuable targets for the treatment of this malignancy. " /// "The effect of activating somatic mutations in the KRAS and BRAF genes on the responsiveness to sunitinib was evaluated in a panel of thyroid cancer cell lines harboring wild-type KRAS and BRAF genes, the RET/PTC1 rearrangement, the G12R KRAS, or the V600E BRAF mutation. "
RET_PTC- 22679698thyroid carcinoma - - The main genetic changes are point mutations in the RET proto-oncogene (somatic or germ-line) in medullary thyroid carcinoma and point mutations in BRAF and RAS genes or RET/PTC rearrangements in carcinomas developing from follicular cells.
RET_PTC- 18509003- - - In contrast, no difference either in NIS or in any other thyroid differentiation genes' mRNA expression was found in PTC with or without RET/PTC rearrangements. /// "BRAFV600E mutation, but not RET/PTC rearrangements, is correlated with a lower expression of both thyroperoxidase and sodium iodide symporter genes in papillary thyroid cancer.. " /// We found BRAFV600E and RET/PTC rearrangements in 35.8 and 19.4% of PTCs respectively. /// "In the present study, we analyzed the mRNA expression of thyroid differentiation genes, glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 and GLUT-3, in 78 PTCs according to the presence of BRAFV600E or RET/PTC rearrangements. " /// "When GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 mRNA expression was considered, no correlation was found either in BRAFV600E- nor in RET/PTC-mutated cases. "
RET_PTC- 26798849thyroid carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - After the pathogenesis of thyroid carcinomas was better understood and the role of molecular alterations in RET, BRAF and RET/PTC rearrangement was revealed, several trials using multikinase inhibitors were developed during the last decade for the treatment of recurrent radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), achieving a remarkable success.
RET_PTC- 18088233thyroid carcinoma;papillary carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - Those include RET/PTC rearrangement and point mutations of the BRAF and RAS genes.
RET_PTC- 20587665thyloid cancer - - We found that 50% growth inhibition (GI(50)) by PD0325901 was 11 nmol/L for the PTC cells with the RET/PTC1 rearrangement and 6.3 nmol/L for PTC cells with a BRAF mutation, with both concentrations readily achievable in serum. /// "Most PTC carry one of the two mutations, RET/PTC rearrangement or BRAF mutation. " /// "In conclusion, our data suggested that PTC cells carrying a BRAF mutation were more sensitive to PD0325901 than were PTC cells carrying the RET/PTC1 rearrangement. " /// "For PTC with the RET/PTC1 rearrangement, the average tumor volume of the orthotopic tumor was reduced by 58% as compared with controls. " /// PD0325901 is a specific MEK1/2 inhibitor and therefore is a promising drug to treat thyroid cancers with either RET/PTC or BRAF mutation.
RET_PTC- 17911174thyloid cancer - - Cell proliferation was potently inhibited by CI-1040 in cells harboring BRAF or RAS mutations but not in cells harboring RET/PTC rearrangement or wild-type alleles. /// "For example, the IC50 values for BRAF mutation-harboring KAT10 cells and DRO cells and H-RAS mutation-harboring C643 cells were 0.365, 0.031, and 0.429 microm, respectively, whereas the IC50 values for RET/PTC1-harboring TPC1 cells and the wild-type MRO and WRO cells were 44, 46, and 278 microm, respectively. "
RET_PTC- 12665646thyroid nodule;papillary carcinoma;thyloid cancer;leukemia;sarcoma - - For instance, mutations of the gsp and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor genes are associated with benign hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules and adenomas while alterations of other specific genes, such as oncogenic tyrosine kinase alterations (RET/PTC, TRK) in papillary carcinoma and the newly discovered PAX8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma rearrangement, are distinctive features of cancer.
RET_PTC- 17186541- - - In papillary thyroid carcinogenesis, the constitutively activated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway caused by a genetic alteration such as RET/PTC rearrangement or mutation of RAS and BRAF genes, is thought to be a major early event.
RET_PTC- 22654560thyroid carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - Thyroid-specific rearrangements RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR?, on the other hand, are rarely found in PDTC and UTC, suggesting that these genetic alterations do not predispose cells to dedifferentiation.
RET_PTC- 18492751thyloid cancer - - Mutations of Ras, PIK3Ca, PTEN, and BRAF genes and RET/PTC rearrangements were common, whereas mutations in PDK1, Akt1, Akt2, and RTK genes were uncommon in ATC.
RET_PTC- 17525478papillary carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - On the molecular level, post-Chernobyl tumors are characterized by frequent occurrence of chromosomal rearrangements, such as RET/PTC, whereas point mutations of BRAF and other genes are much less common in this population..
RET_PTC- 8628282- - - RET/PTC oncogenes, generated by chromosomal rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinomas, are constitutively activated versions of proto-RET, a gene coding for a receptor-type tyrosine kinase (TK) whose ligand is still unknown. /// RET/PTCs encode fusion proteins in which proto-RET TK and C-terminal domains are fused to different donor genes.
RET_PTC- 25926393thyloid cancer - - Blinded analysis of BRAF and RAS point mutations and RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR? rearrangements was correlated with subsequent follow-up.
RET_PTC- 9516913thyroid carcinoma;papillary carcinoma PCR - This study demonstrates that all thyroid carcinomas harboring activating RET rearrangements exhibit a well-differentiated phenotype, that of papillary carcinoma, and indicates that the subset of RET/PTC-positive papillary carcinomas do not progress to more aggressive, less differentiated tumor phenotypes.. /// RET/PTC oncogene activation defines a subset of papillary thyroid carcinomas lacking evidence of progression to poorly differentiated or undifferentiated tumor phenotypes.. /// "A common genetic alteration in thyroid tumors is the rearrangement of the tyrosine kinase-encoding RET proto-oncogene, leading to the generation of chimeric RET/PTC oncogenes. "
RET_PTC- 16029121thyloid cancer - - RET/PTC rearrangements are frequent in thyroid cancer and appear to be exclusive from mutational events in RAS and BRAF. /// "We further propose that if mutations in BRAF, RAS, and RET/PTC rearrangements are mutually exclusive in certain thyroid tumors or tumor types, as has already been shown for papillary thyroid cancer, then these interconnected pathways may cooperate in the initiation and promotion of the disease. "
RET_PTC- 8319199thyroid carcinoma;thyloid cancer;sarcoma - - Accordingly, inducibility of RET oncogene rearrangements, i.e., the generation of the RET-PTC oncogene, specific for thyroid cancer, was investigated among human undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma cells (8505C), which do not have RET oncogene rearrangement, after 0, 10, 50, and 100 Gy of in vitro X-irradiation by means of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
RET_PTC- 12637586papillary carcinoma - - Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 by oncogenic RET/PTC (rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinoma) tyrosine kinase: roles in specific gene regulation and cellular transformation.. /// This thyroid-specific rearrangement causes aberrant expression of RET/PTC and results in constitutive ligand-independent activation of RET kinase. /// Thyroid papillary carcinomas are characterized by RET/PTC (rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinoma) rearrangements that result in fusion of the tyrosine kinase domain of the RET receptor to the N-terminal sequences encoded by heterologous genes. /// "In this study, we show that RET/PTC associates with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and activates it by the specific phosphorylation of the tyrosine 705 residue. " /// Activation of STAT3 requires the intrinsic kinase activity of RET/PTC. /// "In addition, RET/PTC-mediated cellular transformation and proliferation of transformed cells require tyrosine 705 phosphorylation of STAT3 in NIH3T3 cells. " /// "We conclude that STAT3 activation by the RET/PTC tyrosine kinase is one of the critical signaling pathways for the regulation of specific genes, such as cyclin D1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and for cellular transformation.. " /// "However, it is unclear how RET/PTC activates the specific signaling pathways for cellular transformation. " /// "RET/PTC-induced activation of STAT3 induces the STAT3-responsive genes, vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclin D1, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1. " /// Janus tyrosine kinase and c-Src kinase are not involved in the RET/PTC-mediated activation of STAT3.
RET_PTC- 10951397thyroid carcinoma;thyloid cancer;follicular adenoma PCR;RT-PCR - This study was undertaken to assess the frequency of RET/PTC-1 expression, any distinctive features of positive tumours to which it might be related, and its prognostic importance.
RET_PTC- 18226854- - - Incidentally simultaneous occurrence of RET/PTC, H4-PTEN and BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma.. /// H4-PTEN were detected in 9.6% of PTC and the frequency of the occurrence of BRAF mutation and/or RET/PTC in H4-PTEN positive tumors was extremely high (75%).
RET_PTC- 10882153thyroid carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - In this case, several factors influence the frequency and the type of RET/PTC, such as exposure to radiation, age and histological variant of the papillary tumor.
RET_PTC- 22661970- - - In detail, we will summarize the data on the molecular mechanisms involved in RET/PTC formation and in its function as a dominant oncogene, on the activated signal transduction pathways and on the induced gene expression modifications. /// Intracellular signal transduction and modification of the tumor microenvironment induced by RET/PTCs in papillary thyroid carcinoma.. /// "In this review, we will examine the mechanisms involved in RET/PTC-induced thyroid cell transformation. " /// "Finally, a short review of the literature on RET/PTC prognostic significance will be presented.. " /// "Moreover, we will report on the effects of RET/PTCs on the tumor microenvironment. "
RET_PTC- 24830619thyroid nodule;papillary carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - BRAF or RET-PTC was detected exclusively in malignant lesions but not in follicular carcinomas (P < .001).
RET_PTC- 21798995anaplastic thyroid carcinoma - - BRAF-associated PTC differ profoundly from RET/PTC or RAS-associated cancers.
RET_PTC- 12975039thyroid carcinoma PCR - In the case of thyroid epithelial neoplasia, tumor markers such as PTEN/MMAC1/TEP1, telomerase, RET/PTC, b-catenine, PAX8/PPAR(1, ciclooxygenase, thyroid stimulating hormonal receptor (TSHR), and thyro-globulin are being investigated.
RET_PTC- 21048359thyroid nodule;thyloid cancer - - Before undergoing thyroidectomy, we performed molecular diagnostic tests that revealed the absence of BRAF(V600E) and the presence of RET/PTC-1 in one nodule and RET/PTC-3 in the two others.
RET_PTC- 24915144thyroid nodule - - The increased malignancy rate of HTNs of children does not appear to be associated with RAS, BRAF, PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC mutations..
RET_PTC- 12095936papillary carcinoma - - The different activating mutations not only potentiate the enzymatic activity of the RET kinase but also may alter qualitatively RET signaling properties by: (1) altering RET autophosphorylation (in the case of the MEN2B mutation), (2) modifying the subcellular distribution of the active kinase, and (3) providing the active kinase with a scaffold for novel protein-protein interactions (as in the case of RET/PTC oncoproteins). /// These rearrangements generate the chimeric RET/PTC oncogenes.
RET_PTC- 17062879- - - RET/PTC activation in papillary thyroid carcinoma: European Journal of Endocrinology Prize Lecture.. /// "In this review, we examine the data about the mechanisms of thyroid cell transformation, activation of downstream signal transduction pathways and modulation of gene expression induced by RET/PTC. "
RET_PTC- 24570192thyroid nodule;papillary carcinoma - - PAX8/PPARG was detected in 2 MFP samples, while RET/PTC was detected in only one MFP sample.
RET_PTC- 16483615- PCR;RT-PCR - No correlations were found between RET/PTC or Trk oncogenic sequences and patient's age, gender, the histopathological variant of PTC and the assignment to particular stage in clinical staging systems (TNM Staging, the University of Chicago clinical class, and Ohio State University Staging).
RET_PTC- 15947106- PCR - The aim of the present study was to identify the early changes in gene expression induced by RET/PTC in thyroid cells. /// RET/PTC-induced gene expression in thyroid PCCL3 cells reveals early activation of genes involved in regulation of the immune response..
RET_PTC- 10834397follicular adenoma;papillary adenoma - - This lesions occur in almost 50% of papillary cancers and consist in the juxtaposition of the 3' or tyrosine kinase domain of the RET gene (which codes for a receptor protein not normally expressed in follicular thyroid cells) with the 5' domain of ubiquitously expressed genes, which provide the promoter and dimerization functions, necessary for the constitutive activation of RET/PTC proteins. /// Papillary carcinomas show frequently a specific gene rearrangement which gives rise to the formation of several types of so-called RET/PTC chimeric genes.
RET_PTC- 12665647papillary carcinoma - - however, the role of RET/PTC in tumor progression still needs to be defined.. /// Recent studies have suggested that RET/PTC may be the cause of this specific nuclear change in PTC.
RET_PTC- 12182064- - - In all RET/PTC types the RET tyrosine kinase domain is fused to the N-terminus of ubiquitously expressed genes that is capable of ligand-independent dimerization. /// "What is more, the targeted expression of RET/PTC in mice leads to the development of thyroid tumors very similar to human PTCs. " /// RET/PTC3 seems to be associated with solid/follicular variant PTC and short latency period (it is found more frequently in children) whereas RET/PTC1--with classic PTC variant and long latency.. /// The prevalence of RET/PTC in papillary thyroid carcinomas of thyroid varies widely from a few to about 80% with the highest frequency in tumors arising in children after ionizing radiation. /// Correlation with clinical outcome as well as prognostic value of RET/PTC is controversial. /// The majority of RET/PTC identified consists of two types which results from the inversion of chromosome 10: RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3.
RET_PTC- 24267151anaplastic thyroid carcinoma - - The overall prevalence determined were the following: RET/PTC, 4%.
RET_PTC- 14555660- - - RET/PTC rearrangements are believed to be tumor-initiating events in papillary thyroid carcinomas. /// RET/PTC activated mPGES-1 gene transcription. /// Conditional RET/PTC1 or RET/PTC3 expression in PCCL3 thyroid cells markedly induced mPGES-1 and COX-2. /// Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 is induced by conditional expression of RET/PTC in thyroid PCCL3 cells through the activation of the MEK-ERK pathway.. /// We identified microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1) as a RET/PTC-inducible gene through subtraction hybridization cloning and expression profiling with custom microarrays. /// "Based on experiments with kinase inhibitors, with PCCL3 cell lines with doxycycline-inducible expression of RET/PTC mutants with substitutions of critical tyrosine residues in the kinase domain, and lines with inducible expression of activated mutants of H-RAS and MEK1, RET/PTC was found to regulate mPGES-1 through Shc-RAS-MEK-ERK. "
RET_PTC- 15994200- - - The activation of PKB by RET/PTC blocked the activity of the forkhead transcription factor, FKHRL1, but a Y315F mutant of PKB failed to inhibit FKHRL1 activity. /// "In this study, we found that the thyroid-specific oncogenic RET/PTC tyrosine kinase is able to phosphorylate PKB in vitro and in vivo. " /// "In summary, these observations suggest that RET/PTC is able to phosphorylate the Y315 residue of PKB, an event that results in maximal activation of PKB for RET/PTC-induced thyroid tumorigenesis.. " /// "The PKB Y315 residue, which is known to be phosphorylated by Src tyrosine kinase, was also a major site of phosphorylation by RET/PTC. " /// Regulation of protein kinase B tyrosine phosphorylation by thyroid-specific oncogenic RET/PTC kinases.. /// RET/PTC-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation results in the activation of PKB kinase activity. /// "RET/PTC-transfected cells showed tyrosine phosphorylation of endogenous and exogenous PKB, which was independent of phosphorylation of T308 and S473 regulated by the upstream kinases phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 and -2, respectively. "
RET_PTC- 17709622- - - In addition, both PD98059 and U0126 completely inhibited the growth of the PTC cells carrying a BRAF mutation but partially inhibited the growth of the PTC cells carrying the RET/PTC1 rearrangement. /// Differential responses of human papillary thyroid cancer cell lines carrying the RET/PTC1 rearrangement or a BRAF mutation to MEK1/2 inhibitors.. /// Papillary thyroid carcinoma cell lines carrying the RET/PTC1 rearrangement (BHP2-7) or a BRAF mutation (BHP5-16). /// "Using Western blot analysis, we detected the dephosphorylation of ERK1/2 in PTC cells carrying the RET/PTC1 rearrangement or a BRAF mutation after treating the cells with 2 MEK1/2 inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126). " /// We treated PTC cells carrying the RET/PTC1 rearrangement or a BRAF mutation with 2 MEK1/2 inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126). /// "In PTC, RET/PTC1 rearrangement or BRAF mutations results in constitutional activation of RET kinase or BRAF, respectively. "
RET_PTC- 19380355thyroid carcinoma - - After 3 weeks of oral administration of CI-1040 (300 mg/kg/d) to mice with orthotopic tumor implants of PTC cells, the mean tumor volume of implants bearing the RET/PTC1 rearrangement (n = 5) was reduced 47.5% compared with untreated mice (from 701.9 to 368.5 mm(3)), and the mean volume of implants with a BRAF mutation (n = 8) was reduced 31.3% (from 297.3 to 204.2 mm(3)). /// "Because RET/PTC rearrangements are unique to thyroid carcinomas and a high percentage of PTCs possess either mutation, these findings support the clinical evaluation of CI-1040 for patients with PTC.. " /// "To test the effects of CI-1040 (PD184352), a specific MEK1/2 inhibitor, on PTC cells carrying either an RET/PTC1 rearrangement or a BRAF mutation. " /// The concentrations of CI-1040 needed to inhibit 50% cell growth were 0.052microM for PTC cells with a BRAF mutation and 1.1microM for PTC cells with the RET/PTC1 rearrangement.
RET_PTC- 10646882papillary carcinoma;thyloid cancer;follicular adenoma - - and (c) confirm that RET/PTC rearrangements are the major genetic alteration associated with ionizing radiation-induced thyroid tumorigenesis.. /// Twenty-five of this series of radiation-associated tumours were previously studied for the ras and RET/PTC oncogenes.
RET_PTC- 23806056- - - Concomitant BRAF(V600E) mutation and RET/PTC rearrangement is a frequent occurrence in papillary thyroid carcinoma.. /// The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of concomitant BRAF(V600E) mutation and RET/PTC rearrangements in the same tumor and its association with some clinicopathological features. /// The present study demonstrates that concomitant BRAF mutation and RET/PTC rearrangement is a frequent event in PTC.. /// "Concomitant subclonal BRAF and RET/PTC were demonstrated in 14 PTCs (19.4%), and none of the oncogenes was detected in 22 tumors (30.5%). " /// RET/PTC was present in 26 tumors (36.1%).
RET_PTC- 19487296thyloid cancer - - Here, through cellular and molecular characterization of the two most common RET/PTC rearrangements (PTC1 and PTC3), we show that RET/PTC oncoproteins are highly oncogenic when overexpressed, with the ability to increase cell proliferation and transformation. /// "Further, RET/PTCs activate similar downstream signaling cascades to wild-type RET, although at different levels, and are relatively more stable as they avoid lysosomal degradation. " /// Transcript level modulates the inherent oncogenicity of RET/PTC oncoproteins..
RET_PTC- 20459574follicular adenoma;follicular adenoma - - It is suggested that HTTs lacking both a miRNA expression pattern characteristic for PTC and RET/PTC rearrangements are re-designated as 'hyalinizing trabecular adenomas'.. /// All HTTs lacked BRAF mutations and RET/PTC rearrangements. /// "Furthermore, the two common genetic alterations characteristic for PTC, the V600E mutation of the BRAF gene and RET/PTC 1 and 3 rearrangements, were determined in all HTTs. "
RET_PTC- 19095577polyposis - - Thr1493Thr gene variant was found in the neoplastic cells along with RET/PTC rearrangement.
RET_PTC- 22191389thyroid carcinoma;thyloid cancer - - The multikinase inhibitor Sunitinib has been shown to inhibit the kinase activity of the RET oncogene and reduce proliferation in differentiated thyroid cancer cells harboring the RET/PTC rearrangement.
RET_PTC- 21947652thyloid cancer;breast cancer - - The rearranged during transfection/papillary thyroid carcinoma (RET/PTC) tyrosine kinase is an oncogene implicated in the tumorigenesis of thyroid cancer. /// "These results demonstrate a novel pathway of ER and FOXA1 transcription factor crosstalk in regulating RET/PTC kinase expression, and demonstrate that RET/PTC kinase is a critical regulator for the proliferation of ER-positive breast cancer cells. " /// "Using reporter assays, small interfering RNA (siRNA) assays, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, we demonstrated the necessity of crosstalk between ER and the forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) transcription factor in regulating RET/PTC kinase expression. " /// We found that estrogen rapidly induces RET/PTC kinase expression in an ER-dependent manner in breast cancer cells and that this induction is through a transcriptional regulatory mechanism. /// "We found that RET/PTC kinase expression correlates with estrogen receptor (ER) expression in breast cancer cells and tumor specimens, and that RET/PTC kinase expression is associated with a poor prognosis in ER-positive breast cancer patients. " /// "Conversely, knockdown of RET/PTC expression was associated with the inhibition of these same kinase signaling pathways, and, in fact, decreased the stimulatory effect of estrogen on the proliferation of ER-positive breast cancer cells. " /// Recent studies by us and others have shown that RET/PTC kinase expression is induced by estrogen in breast cancer cells. /// "In functional studies, increased expression of RET/PTC kinase induced by estrogen stimulation resulted in elevated phosphorylation of multiple downstream kinase signaling pathways. " /// "Due to the critical involvement of estrogen-regulated genes in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, we investigated the expression, regulation, and function of RET/PTC kinase in breast cancer cells. " /// "Taken together, our study suggests that RET/PTC kinase may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of ER-positive breast cancer.. "
RET_PTC- 18676765thyroid carcinoma - - Because RET/PTC rearrangements are unique to thyroid carcinomas, our findings support the clinical evaluation of sorafenib for patients with PTC and the identification of patients most likely to respond to sorafenib treatment.. /// "The concentration needed for 50% growth inhibition (GI(50)) by sorafenib was 0.14 mumol/L for the PTC cells with the RET/PTC1 rearrangement, and 2.5 mumol/L for PTC cells with a BRAF mutation, both readily achievable serum concentrations. " /// Sorafenib potently inhibits papillary thyroid carcinomas harboring RET/PTC1 rearrangement.. /// "After 3 weeks of oral administration of sorafenib (80 mg/kg/d) in mice, small (94% reduction compared with controls) or no tumor growth was detected in mice inoculated with PTC cells bearing the RET/PTC1 rearrangement, whereas the tumor volume of the orthotopic tumor implants of PTC cells with a BRAF mutation was reduced 53% to 54% (as compared with controls). " /// PTC cells carrying the RET/PTC1 rearrangement were more sensitive to sorafenib than PTC cells carrying a BRAF mutation.
RET_PTC- 12853977thyroid carcinoma - - RET/PTC expression has been demonstrated to inhibit transcription of thyroid-specific genes. /// "Acute expression of RET/PTC3 or RET/PTC3(Y541F), but not PTC2/PDZ, inhibited TSH-induced Tg and NIS expression, suggesting that activation of Shc-Ras, but not PLCgamma, is required for RET/PTC-induced dedifferentiation. " /// "In conclusion, activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/MAPK pathway through Shc mediates RET/PTC-induced thyroid cell dedifferentiation. " /// "Acute expression of RET/PTC(Y541F) appropriately interacted with Shc, an intermediate in the activation of the Ras pathway, but failed to activate PLCgamma. " /// RET/PTC-induced dedifferentiation of thyroid cells is mediated through Y1062 signaling through SHC-RAS-MAP kinase.. /// This suggests that inhibition of this pathway may promote redifferentiation in poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas with constitutive activation of either Ras or RET/PTC..
RET_PTC- 11117781papillary carcinoma;follicular adenoma - - None of the control follicular adenomas contained rearrangements of RET/PTC. /// "Finally, in one mixed HTT-papillary carcinoma sample, RET/PTC1 expression was detected, but only in the papillary component. " /// RET/PTC activation in hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid..
RET_PTC- 14981541- - - Papillary thyroid carcinomas are characterized by rearrangements of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase generating RET/PTC oncogenes. /// "Here we show that osteopontin (OPN), a secreted glycoprotein, is a major RET/PTC-induced transcriptional target in PC Cl 3 thyroid follicular cells. " /// "OPN upregulation depended on the integrity of the RET/PTC kinase and tyrosines Y1015 and Y1062, two major RET/PTC autophosphorylation sites. " /// "Upregulation of CD44 was dependent on RET/PTC Y1062, as well. " /// "Constitutive OPN overexpression or treatment with exogenous recombinant OPN sharply increased proliferation, Matrigel invasion and spreading in collagen gels of RET/PTC-transformed PC Cl 3 cells. " /// Autocrine stimulation by osteopontin plays a pivotal role in the expression of the mitogenic and invasive phenotype of RET/PTC-transformed thyroid cells.. /// "RET/PTC also induced a strong overexpression of CD44, a cell surface signalling receptor for OPN. " /// These effects were impaired by the treatment of PC Cl 3-RET/PTC cells with OPN- and CD44-locking antibodies. /// "Thus, RET/PTC signalling triggers an autocrine loop involving OPN and CD44 that sustains proliferation and invasion of transfomed PC Cl 3 thyrocytes.. "
RET_PTC- 18602667thyroid carcinoma - - No mutations were found for APC or BRAF genes, nor were RET/PTC rearrangements detected.
RET_PTC- 23060067thyloid cancer;prostate cancer;leukemia;breast cancer;lung cancer;sarcoma;lymphoma - - In this review, we will summarize the histologic features of known recurrent genomic rearrangements in carcinomas, especially focusing on TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in prostate cancer, EML4-ALK in lung cancer, ETV6-NTRK3 in secretory breast cancer, RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR?1 rearrangements in thyroid cancer.
RET_PTC- 18251569oligodendroglioma - - Molecular assays that are currently in use or on the near horizon, including translocation analyses for RET-PTC and PPARgamma-PAX8, point mutation analysis for BRAF and epidermal growth factor receptor, and genetic loss for 1p and 19q, are discussed..
RET_PTC- 15812549thyroid cancer - - On the basis of their pathological features and of the fact that a large proportion of them demonstrate RET-PTC translocations, these cancers are considered as similar to classical sporadic papillary carcinomas, although molecular alterations differ between both tumours.
RET_PTC- 21464025thyloid cancer - - It is established that numerous somatic oncogene mutation (BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, KRAS) and gene translocations (RET/PTC, PAX8/PPAR-gamma) are associated with the development of thyroid cancer.
RET_PTC- 24522987thyroid nodule - - Tests included an RNA-based gene expression classifier, a DNA-based somatic mutation panel, BRAF, NRAS, and/or RET/PTC translocation.
RET_PTC- 19777762thyloid cancer - - This knowledge has in turn led to the development of a range of targeted therapies, some specific to thyroid cancer genetic alterations such as the RET/PTC translocation, and others that exploit general malignant properties such as angiogenesis.
RET_PTC- 19415957papillary carcinoma - - It appears that there can be molecular contributions from the RET/PTC translocations and from mutations in the APC gene and beta-catenin gene, which are both part of the Wnt signaling pathway.
RET_PTC- 12665650chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis - - The finding of the RET-PTC translocations in CLT has been reported by two independent groups of investigators, suggesting that the areas of nuclear atypia in CLT are neoplastic rather than reactive.
RET_PTC- 16867191- - - Molecular studies have found RET/PTC translocations in some examples, supporting HTN as a PTC.
RET_PTC- 16627918thyroid carcinoma;papillary carcinoma - - These include the translocations RET/PTC and PAX8-PPARgamma and point mutations in the BRAF and RAS genes.
RET_PTC- 20012784papillary carcinoma - - Absence of BRAF, NRAS, KRAS, HRAS mutations, and RET/PTC gene rearrangements distinguishes dominant nodules in Hashimoto thyroiditis from papillary thyroid carcinomas.. /// "Screening for BRAF, RET, KRAS, NRAS, and HRAS mutations, as well as RET-PTC1 and RET-PTC3 rearrangements, was performed on paraffin-embedded material from 17 of these dominant nodules. " /// "No BRAF or RAS mutations or RET-PTC rearrangements were identified in a dominant nodule, including those with atypical, worrisome histopathologic features. "
RET_PTC- 15472223follicular adenoma;goitre - - 60 of these samples were also examined for RET/PTC rearrangements. /// Analysis of BRAF point mutation and RET/PTC rearrangement refines the fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.. /// These results indicate that BRAF mutation and RET/PTC rearrangements are molecular markers of PTC that can be applied to FNA in adjunct to traditional cytology.. /// The identification of BRAF mutation and RET/PTC refined the diagnosis of PTC in five of 15 samples that were considered either indeterminate or insufficient at cytology. /// RET/PTC was found in 18% of the PTC cases.
RET_PTC- 25047205thyroid nodule - - The rule out (gene expression classifier) approach requires confirmation by independent studies, whereas the rule in approach (detection of BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS and PAX8/PPARG- and RET/PTC rearrangements) has been investigated by several groups with overall reproducible results.
RET_PTC- 24327398thyloid cancer - - The group of rearrangement-positive PTCs (ETV6-NTRK3, RET/PTC, PAX8-PPAR?) was associated with significantly higher dose response compared with the group of PTCs with point mutations (BRAF, RAS.


The fusion gene pair RET--PTC information is not available in CHIMERSEQ (CHIMERDB 3.0) database.

ChiTaRS 2.1

The fusion gene pair RET--PTC information is not available in CHITARS database.


The fusion gene pair RET--PTC information is not available in FARE-CAFE.


The fusion gene pair RET--PTC information is not available in TicDB.

TUMOR FUSION Gene Data Portal

The fusion gene pair RET--PTC information is not available in TUMOR FUSION Gene Data Portal.


The fusion gene pair RET--PTC information is not available in FusionCancer Database.


The fusion gene pair RET--PTC information is not available in ConjoinG Database.


Fusion gene RET--PTC has not been seen in a healthy sample (RNA-seq data from some samples from 1000 genomes project: Greger et al., Tandem RNA Chimeras Contribute to Transcriptome Diversity in Human Population and Are Associated with Intronic Genetic Variants, Plos One, Aug 2014 ). Therefore this candidate fusion gene has a low probability of being a false positive. [Fusion gene List compiled from FusionCatcher]


Fusion gene RET--PTC is not found in a RNA-seq dataset of 18 types of cancers from 600 tumor samples (B. Alaei-Mahabadia et al., Global analysis of somatic structural genomic alterations and their impact on gene expression in diverse human cancers, PNAS, Nov. 2016 )


Fusion gene RET--PTC is not found in the list of known false positive fusion genes. The list has been generated from healthy human samples collected from 16 organs from Illumina BodyMap2 RNA-seq database. A candidate fusion gene found in this list has a very high probability of being a false positive. [Fusion gene List compiled from FusionCatcher]


Fusion gene RET--PTC is not found in a healthy sample (RNA-seq database of 27 healthy tissues from 95 human individuals). A candidate fusion gene found in this dataset has a very high probability of being a false positive. [Fusion gene List compiled from FusionCatcher]


Fusion gene RET--PTC was not found among the fusion genes which have been previously reported/found in non-tumor cell lines, like for example HEK293. The genes which are observed in those list can be considered as non-somatic mutation. [Fusion gene List compiled from FusionCatcher]


The fusion gene pair RET--PTC information is not available in Babiceanu_Dataset.


Fusion gene RET--PTC is not found in the list of known false positive fusion genes. A candidate fusion gene found in this list has a very high probability of being a false positive. [Fusion gene List compiled from FusionCatcher]


Fusion gene RET--PTC has not been found in the list of fusions previously reported or published in scientific articles/reports/books/abstracts/databases, indexed by Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, etc. The list has been manually curated by FusionCatcher software. This label has only the role to answer with YES or NO the question "has ever before a given (candidate) fusion gene been published or reported?". This label does not have in anyway the role to provide the original references to the original scientific articles/reports/books/abstracts/databases for a given fusion gene.[Fusion gene List compiled from FusionCatcher]

ONGene Database

The head gene RET is a known oncogene according to ONGENE database.

The tail gene PTC is a known oncogene according to ONGENE database.

Bushman Cancer Gene Database

The head gene RET is cancer associated according to Bushman Cancer Gene database.

The tail gene PTC is cancer associated according to Bushman Cancer Gene database.

Tumor Gene Set By Uniprot

The head gene RET is proto-oncogene or tumor suppresor gene according to Uniprot database.
The tail gene PTC is not a proto-oncogene or tumor suppresor gene according to Uniprot database.


Fusion gene RET--PTC is not found in oesophageal tumors from TCGA samples, which are published here.


Fusion gene RET--PTC is not found in the RNA-seq dataset of 272 glioblastomas, published here.


The fusion gene pair RET--PTC information is not available in Prostate Dataset (150 prostate tumor RNAs, Robison et al, Integrative Clinical Genomics of Advanced Prostate Cancer, Cell, Vol. 161, May 2015,


Fusion gene RET--PTC is not found in pancreatic tumor dataset, published here.


Fusion gene RET--PTC has not been found in a healthy sample (GTEx database of healthy tissues (thru FusionAnnotator)). A candidate fusion gene found in this set has a very high probability of being a false positive. [Fusion gene List compiled from FusionCatcher]


The fusion gene pair RET--PTC information is not available in Klijn Dataset.


The fusion gene pair RET--PTC information is not found in Fimereli_Dataset.


The fusion gene pair RET--PTC information is not found in known fusion genelist compiled from literature.


Fusion gene RET--PTC is not found in Cortex_Dataset (Fusion genes found in healthy human brains (BA9 prefrontal cortex)) . A candidate fusion gene found in this dataset has a very high probability of being a false positive.


The fusion gene pair RET--PTC information is not available in ChromothripsisDB database.