RARA--PLZF

Hyperlinks to databases below
COSMIC CHIMERKB CHIMERPUB CHIMERSEQ CHITARS
FARE-CAFE TICDB TUMOR_FUSION_GDPFusionCancerConjoinG
1000Genome18CancersBodymap2HPANon_Tumor_Cells
Babiceanu_DatasetBanned_DatasetKnown_FusionsONGene DatabaseBushman Cancer Gene Database
Tumor Gene Set By UniprotOesophagus_DatasetGliomas_DatasetProstate_DatasetPancreases_Dataset
GTExKlijn_DatasetFimereli_Dataset Literature Cortex_Dataset
ChromothripsisDB

Link to Genecards:

RARA PLZF

COSMIC

The fusion gene pair RARA--PLZF information is not available in COSMIC database.

ChimerKB

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The fusion gene pair RARA--PLZF information is not available in CHIMERKB (CHIMERDB 3.0) database.

ChimerPUB

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The fusion gene pair RARA--PLZF information is available in CHIMERPUB (CHIMERDB 3.0) database.

Fusion_pairTranslocationPMIDDiseaseValidationGene TypeSentence_highlight
RARA_PLZFt(15;17) / t(11;17)(q23;q21) / t(5;17) / t(5;17)(q13;q21) / 10942371acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia FISH - In one case with a normal karyotype, FISH analysis revealed insertion of RAR alpha into 11q23, and PLZF-RAR alpha was the sole fusion gene formed. /// "In 11 of 60 workshop patients, PLZF/RAR alpha rearrangements were identified, including 2 patients lacking the t(11;17)(q23;q21). "
RARA_PLZFt(11;17) / t(11;17) / 16897742acute myeloid leukemia;myeloid leukemia;leukemia FISH - We identified six different gene fusions that comprised seven cases with a MLL-MLLT6/AF17, three with a MLL-SEPT9/MSF, and one each with MLL-LASP1, MLL-ACACA, and ZBTB16/PLZF-RARA fusions. /// "At present, two genes are known in 11q23 and four in 17q12-25 that generate five distinct fusion genes: MLL-MLLT6/AF17, MLL-LASP1, MLL-ACACA or MLL-SEPT9/MSF, and ZBTB16/PLZF-RARA. "
RARA_PLZFt(11;17) / 8018944acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia PCR;RT-PCR - (3) APL is not a homogeneous disease in that among 50 patients studied at the molecular level, although a PML-RARA fusion gene was detected in 45 cases, one had a variant translocation t(11;17) bearing fusion gene PLZF-RARA, one presented no obvious structural alteration of the PML gene while the RARA gene was rearranged, and three patients had no rearrangement of either PML or RARA genes.
RARA_PLZFt(15;17) / t(15;17) / t(5;17) / t(11;17)(q23;q21) / t(11;17) / 10942370acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia - - This group includes (1) cases with cryptic PML/RARA gene rearrangements and t(5;17) that leads to the NPM/RARA fusion gene, which are retinoid-responsive, and (2) cases with t(11;17)(q23;q21) that are associated with the PLZF/RARA fusion gene, which are retinoid-resistant. /// "Interestingly, this classification system distinguished 9 cases with t(11;17)(q23;q21) and, in addition, successfully identified 2 cases lacking t(11;17), which were subsequently shown to have underlying PLZF/RARA fusions. " /// A new morphologic classification system for acute promyelocytic leukemia distinguishes cases with underlying PLZF/RARA gene rearrangements.. /// "The PLZF/RARA cases were characterized by a predominance of blasts with regular nuclei, an increased number of Pelger-like cells, and by expression of CD56 in 4 of 6 cases tested. "
RARA_PLZFt(11;17) / t(5;17) / 8721678acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia - - However, a small subset of APL patients have a different fusion gene, PLZF-RARA, resulting from the variant translocation t(11;17). /// Current data suggest that PML-RAR alpha and PLZF-RAR alpha fusion receptors may play an important role in the development of APL and that PML-RAR alpha could be the target of ATRA differentiation therapy.
RARA_PLZFt(11;17)(q23;q21) / t(15;17) / t(11;17) / t(5;17) / 15748426acute myeloid leukemia;chronic myeloid leukemia;acute promyelocytic leukemia;myeloid leukemia;leuke - - Our group first discovered in the world the variant chromosome translocation t(11;17)(q23;q21) of APL, and cloned the PML-RAR alpha, PLZF-RAR alpha and NPM-RAR alpha fusion genes corresponding to the characterized chromosome translocations t(15;17). /// The ability of ATRA to modify the recruitment of nuclear receptor co-repressor with PML-RAR alpha but not PLZF-RAR alpha caused by the variant chromosome translocation elucidated the therapeutic mechanism of ATRA from the molecular level and provides new insight into transcription-modulating therapy.
RARA_PLZFt(11;17) / t(11;17) / t(15;17) / 7849296acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia;disseminated intravascular coagulation - - All six patients had PLZF-RAR alpha gene fusion as detected by reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction assay, Southern blotting, or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
RARA_PLZFt(11;17) / t(15;17) / t(11;17) / 8309256acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia - - Recently the RAR alpha gene has been demonstrated to be involved in a novel fusion transcript (PLZF/RAR alpha) through a t(11;17) translocation. /// Poor response to all-trans retinoic acid therapy in a t(11;17) PLZF/RAR alpha patient.. /// We describe here the second case of such a patient with a t(11;17)-PLZF/RAR alpha leukemic clone. /// These results suggest that the t(11;17) (PLZF/RAR alpha) case of this study was less responsive to ATRA therapy than t(15;17) (PML/RAR alpha) cases and raises the question of the definition of this novel AML subtype..
RARA_PLZFt(15;17) / t(11;17)(q23;q21) / t(5;17)(q35;q12-21) / t(11;17)(q13;q21) / 22205181acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia - - Acute promyelocytic leukemia associated with the PLZF-RARA fusion gene: two additional cases with clinical and laboratorial peculiar presentations.. /// "This paper describes two cases of APL associated with the PLZF-RARA fusion gene enrolled in the IC-APL trial that is a non-randomized, multicenter study conducted in Brazil, Mexico, Chile and Uruguay with the aim to improve the treatment outcome of APL patients in developing countries. "
RARA_PLZFt(5;17) / t(5;17)(q32;q12) / t(2;5) / t(15;17) / t(11;17) / 8562957acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia;lymphoma - - The RARA sequences are the same as the RARA sequences found in the PML-RAR and PLZF-RAR fusion seen in t(15;17) and t(11;17) APL, respectively.
RARA_PLZFt(11;17) / t(15;17) / 8622986acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia - - Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger-retinoic acid receptor a (PLZF-RARalpha), a fusion receptor generated as a result of a variant t(11;17) chromosomal translocation that occurs in a small subset of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients, has been shown to display a dominant-negative effect against the wild-type RARalpha/retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha).
RARA_PLZF- 11776589leukemia PCR;RT-PCR - TF is up-regulated by PLZF-RARA fusion gene.. /// PLZF-RARA fusion protein plays a crucial role in leukemogenesis.
RARA_PLZFt(11;17) / 12529666acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia - - Finally, low c-fms expression was observed in an APL relapsing patient resistant to ATRA, as well as in an APL case with t(11;17), PLZF/RAR alpha+.
RARA_PLZFt(15;17)(q22;q21) / t(11;17)(q23;q21) / t(5;17)(q35;q21) / t(11;17)(q13;q21) / 12357344- - - These include the t(11;17)(q23;q21) that produces the PLZF-RAR fusion, t(5;17)(q35;q21) that forms NPM-RAR, t(11;17)(q13;q21) that generates NUMA-RAR, and der(17) that creates STAT5b-RAR.
RARA_PLZFt(11;17)(q23;q21) / t(15;17) / 8302850acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia - - PLZF-RAR alpha fusion proteins generated from the variant t(11;17)(q23;q21) translocation in acute promyelocytic leukemia inhibit ligand-dependent transactivation of wild-type retinoic acid receptors.. /// "A ""dominant negative"" effect was observed when PLZF-RAR alpha fusion proteins were cotransfected with vectors expressing RAR alpha and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR alpha). " /// These abnormal transactivation properties observed in retinoic acid-sensitive myeloid cells strongly implicate the PLZF-RAR alpha fusion proteins in the molecular pathogenesis of APL.. /// We have now cloned cDNAs encoding PLZF-RAR alpha chimeric proteins and studied their transactivating activities.
RARA_PLZFt(15;17) / t(15;17) / t(11;17) / t(11;17) / 11703323- - - Histone deacetylase (HDAC) appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) as it is recruited by both PML-RARalpha and PLZF/RAR alpha in leukaemic cells with t(15;17) and t(11;17) respectively.
RARA_PLZFt(11;17)(q23;q21) / 21949697- - - The PLZF/RARA fusion protein generated by the t(11;17)(q23;q21) translocation in acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) is believed to act as an oncogenic transcriptional regulator recruiting epigenetic factors to genes important for its transforming potential. /// We identify 413 specific PLZF/RARA target genes including a number encoding transcription factors involved in the regulation of haematopoiesis. /// "By comparing bound regions found in U937 cells expressing endogenous PLZF with PLZF/RARA-induced U937 cells, we isolated specific PLZF/RARA target gene promoters. " /// We next analysed gene expression profiles of our identified target genes in PLZF/RARA APL patients and analysed DNA sequences and epigenetic modification at PLZF/RARA binding sites. /// "However, molecular mechanisms associated with PLZF/RARA-dependent leukaemogenesis still remain unclear.We searched for specific PLZF/RARA target genes by ChIP-on-chip in the haematopoietic cell line U937 conditionally expressing PLZF/RARA. " /// "In addition, repressed PLZF/RARA target genes were associated with increased levels of H3K27me3 and decreased levels of H3K9K14ac. " /// Our study suggests that PLZF/RARA directly targets genes important for haematopoietic development and supports the notion that PLZF/RARA acts mainly as an epigenetic regulator of its direct target genes.. /// "Among these genes, 22 were significantly down regulated in primary PLZF/RARA APL cells. " /// Characterisation of genome-wide PLZF/RARA target genes.. /// "Finally, sequence analysis of PLZF/RARA bound sequences reveals the presence of both consensus and degenerated RAREs as well as enrichment for tissue-specific transcription factor motifs, highlighting the complexity of targeting fusion protein to chromatin. "
RARA_PLZFt(11;17) / t(11;17) / 11964310acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia - - Interactions of GATA-2 with the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) protein, its homologue FAZF, and the t(11;17)-generated PLZF-retinoic acid receptor alpha oncoprotein..
RARA_PLZFt(15;17) / t(11;17) / 9070655acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia - - Although PLZF-RAR alpha and PML-RAR alpha are similar in their apparent dominant negative effects, t(11;17)-associated APL is refractory to ATRA therapy. /// Our data support the hypothesis that RAR alpha-PLZF chimera is not an inert product of reciprocal translocation and may thus contribute to ATRA unresponsiveness of t(11;17)-associated APL.. /// The RAR alpha-PLZF chimera associated with Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia has retained a sequence-specific DNA-binding domain.. /// "Using these autonomously transactivating hybrids, similar in structure to the RAR alpha-PLZF fusion, we mapped the DNA-binding domain of PLZF to the last five Zinc-fingers, a region retained in RAR alpha-PLZF chimera and characterized a specific PLZF target sequence. "
RARA_PLZFt(15;17) / t(11;17) / t(11;17) / t(15;17) / 11696577acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia - - In cells from PLZF-RAR alpha/RAR alpha-PLZF transgenic mice and cells harboring t(15;17), HDACIs induced apoptosis and dramatic growth inhibition, effects that could be potentiated by RA. /// "The PML-RAR alpha and PLZF-RAR alpha fusion oncoproteins function as aberrant transcriptional repressors, in part by recruiting nuclear receptor-transcriptional corepressors and histone deacetylases (HDACs). "
RARA_PLZFt(11;17) / t(11;17) / t(15;17) / 8570209acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia - - Reduced and altered DNA-binding and transcriptional properties of the PLZF-retinoic acid receptor-alpha chimera generated in t(11;17)-associated acute promyelocytic leukemia.. /// Leukemogenesis in t(11;17) APL may be related to interference with ATRA-mediated differentiation due to sequestration of RXR by the PLZF-RAR alpha chimera. /// PLZF-RAR alpha stimulated ATRA-dependent transcription of RARE-containing reporter genes with diminished activity compared to wild-type RAR alpha. /// "PLZF-RAR alpha, in combination with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) bound to a retinoic acid-responsive element (RARE) less efficiently than RAR alpha and formed multimeric DNA-protein complexes. " /// "In addition, PLZF-RAR alpha antagonized the function of coexpressed wild-type RAR alpha, an effect relieved by over-expression of RXR. " /// The reciprocal PLZF-RAR alpha and RAR alpha-PLZF fusion proteins were localized to the nucleus both in the presence and absence of ATRA.
RARA_PLZF- 15968309acute lymphoblastic leukemia;chronic myeloid leukemia;acute promyelocytic leukemia;myeloid leukemia PCR;RT-PCR - Ten fusion genes were detected in 115 cases of leukemia, including AML1/ETO, PML/RAR alpha, PLZF/RAR alpha, dupMLL, MLL/AF6, MLL/AF10, CBFbeta/MYH11, BCR/ABL, Hox11, and EVI1 BCR/ABL was positive in all the 52 cases of chronic myeloid leukemia. /// "PML/RAR alpha was found in 21 of 25 acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and PLZF/RAR alpha was detected in one case of APL. "
RARA_PLZF- 17286448acute myeloid leukemia;chronic myeloid leukemia;myeloid leukemia;leukemia PCR - A total of 23 sets of oligomers were fabricated on glass slides for the detection of normal and fusion genes, as follows: BCR/ABL, AML/EAP, AML/ETO, AML/MDS, PML/RARA, NUMA1/RARA, PLZF/RARA, and CBFB/MYH.
RARA_PLZFt(15;17) / t(11;17) / 7719245acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia PCR;RT-PCR - It has been shown that the PLZF-RAR alpha, like PML-RAR alpha, has a "dominant negative" effect on the wild-type RAR-RXR. /// The comparison of the biological activities mediated by PML-RAR alpha and PLZF-RAR alpha may give new insights into the pathogenesis as well as the mechanisms of ATRA-induced differentiation in APL..
RARA_PLZFt(15;17) / 22655241acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia - - However, there are few data on tracking disease response in patients with rarer retinoid resistant subtypes of APL, characterized by PLZF-RARA and STAT5b-RARA. /// "Despite their rarity (<1% of APL) we identified 6 cases (PLZF-RARA, n?=?5. " /// Serial samples were available from two PLZF-RARA APL patients.
RARA_PLZFt(15;17) / t(11;17) / 7697468acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia - - Both PML/RAR alpha and PLZF/RAR alpha display the "dominant negative" effect on the wild-type RAR/RXR.
RARA_PLZF- 11022230acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia - - In acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells with rearrangement of retinoic acid receptor a (RAR alpha) (including: PML-RAR alpha, PLZF-RAR alpha, NPM-RAR alpha, NuMA- RAR alpha or STAT5b-RAR alpha) as a result of chromosomal translocations, the RA signal pathway is disrupted and myeloid differentiation is arrested at the promyelocytic stage.
RARA_PLZFt(11;17) / 15592671acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia PCR;RT-PCR - We describe a patient with promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger/retinoic acid receptor alpha (PLZF/RARalpha) APML who was treated with combination chemotherapy after poor response to arsenic trioxide.
RARA_PLZFt(15;17) / 20455087acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia - - Suboptimal RA concentrations or expression of the PLZF/RARA variant allows complete RA-induced differentiation, but neither LIC clearance nor disease remission.
RARA_PLZFt(11;17)(q21;q23) / t(8;21) / 11090081acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia - - Finally, ETO interacted with PLZF/RAR alpha and enhanced its ability to repress through the RARE.
RARA_PLZFt(11;17) / t(11;17) / del(5)(q13q33) / t(11;17)(q24;q23) / 23147462acute myeloid leukemia;acute promyelocytic leukemia;myeloid leukemia;myelodysplastic syndrome;leukemia - - Molecular characterization of both cases failed to identify fusion transcripts involving MLL or PLZF-RARA and no collaborating somatic mutations commonly found among MDS patients were seen in either case, suggesting the presence of an as yet unidentified oncogenic fusion protein..
RARA_PLZFt(11;17) / t(15;17) / 8622986acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia - - Amino-terminal protein-protein interaction motif (POZ-domain) is responsible for activities of the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger-retinoic acid receptor-alpha fusion protein..
RARA_PLZF- 16331271acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia - - Similarly to what was observed in human APL patients, we found that NPM/RAR alpha and PML/RAR alpha, but not PLZF/RAR alpha leukemia, was responsive to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or As2O3 treatments. /// "Similarly, hCG-PLZF/RAR alpha TM displayed a different phenotype where terminally differentiated myeloid cells predominated. " /// "Leukemia with distinct phenotypes in transgenic mice expressing PML/RAR alpha, PLZF/RAR alpha or NPM/RAR alpha.. " /// "Importantly, the NPM/RAR alpha oncoprotein was found to localize in the nucleolus, unlike PML/RAR alpha and PLZF/RAR alpha, thus possibly interfering with the normal function of NPM. " /// We compared the features of the leukemia observed in these TM with those in hCG-PML/RAR alpha and hCG-PLZF/RAR alpha TM.
RARA_PLZFt(5;17) / t(15;17)(q23;q12) / t(11;17)(q23;q12) / t(5;17)(q32;q12) / del(5q) / del(8q) / t(11;17) / 8605120acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia ISH - A few cases of APL with a t(11;17)(q23;q12) and a PLZF/RARA fusion gene have recently been reported.
RARA_PLZFt(11;17)(q23;q21) / t(11;17) (q23;21) / t(15;17) / t(11;17) / 8387545acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia ISH - The fusion PLZF-RAR alpha gene found in this case, was not found in DNA obtained from the bone marrow of normals, APL with t(15;17) and in one patient with AML-M2 with a t(11;17).
RARA_PLZFt(11;17) / 10381496acute promyelocytic leukemia;leukemia ISH - Bone marrow and blood became negative in fluorescense in situ hybridization analysis and semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed a profound reduction of promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger-retinoic acid receptor-alpha fusion transcripts.

ChimerSEQ

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The fusion gene pair RARA--PLZF information is not available in CHIMERSEQ (CHIMERDB 3.0) database.

ChiTaRS 2.1

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The fusion gene pair RARA--PLZF information is not available in CHITARS database.

FARE-CAFE

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The fusion gene pair RARA--PLZF information is not available in FARE-CAFE.

TicDB

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The fusion gene pair RARA--PLZF information is not available in TicDB.

TUMOR FUSION Gene Data Portal

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The fusion gene pair RARA--PLZF information is not available in TUMOR FUSION Gene Data Portal.

FusionCancer

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The fusion gene pair RARA--PLZF information is not available in FusionCancer Database.

ConjoinG

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The fusion gene pair RARA--PLZF information is not available in ConjoinG Database.

1000Genome

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Fusion gene RARA--PLZF has not been seen in a healthy sample (RNA-seq data from some samples from 1000 genomes project: Greger et al., Tandem RNA Chimeras Contribute to Transcriptome Diversity in Human Population and Are Associated with Intronic Genetic Variants, Plos One, Aug 2014 ). Therefore this candidate fusion gene has a low probability of being a false positive. [Fusion gene List compiled from FusionCatcher]

18Cancers

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Fusion gene RARA--PLZF is not found in a RNA-seq dataset of 18 types of cancers from 600 tumor samples (B. Alaei-Mahabadia et al., Global analysis of somatic structural genomic alterations and their impact on gene expression in diverse human cancers, PNAS, Nov. 2016 )

Bodymap2

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Fusion gene RARA--PLZF is not found in the list of known false positive fusion genes. The list has been generated from healthy human samples collected from 16 organs from Illumina BodyMap2 RNA-seq database. A candidate fusion gene found in this list has a very high probability of being a false positive. [Fusion gene List compiled from FusionCatcher]

HPA

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Fusion gene RARA--PLZF is not found in a healthy sample (RNA-seq database of 27 healthy tissues from 95 human individuals). A candidate fusion gene found in this dataset has a very high probability of being a false positive. [Fusion gene List compiled from FusionCatcher]

Non_Tumor_Cells

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Fusion gene RARA--PLZF was not found among the fusion genes which have been previously reported/found in non-tumor cell lines, like for example HEK293. The genes which are observed in those list can be considered as non-somatic mutation. [Fusion gene List compiled from FusionCatcher]

Babiceanu_Dataset

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The fusion gene pair RARA--PLZF information is not available in Babiceanu_Dataset.

Banned_Dataset

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Fusion gene RARA--PLZF is not found in the list of known false positive fusion genes. A candidate fusion gene found in this list has a very high probability of being a false positive. [Fusion gene List compiled from FusionCatcher]

Known_Fusions

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Fusion gene RARA--PLZF has not been found in the list of fusions previously reported or published in scientific articles/reports/books/abstracts/databases, indexed by Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, etc. The list has been manually curated by FusionCatcher software. This label has only the role to answer with YES or NO the question "has ever before a given (candidate) fusion gene been published or reported?". This label does not have in anyway the role to provide the original references to the original scientific articles/reports/books/abstracts/databases for a given fusion gene.[Fusion gene List compiled from FusionCatcher]

ONGene Database

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The head gene RARA is a known oncogene according to ONGENE database.


The tail gene PLZF is a known oncogene according to ONGENE database.

Bushman Cancer Gene Database

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The head gene RARA is cancer associated according to Bushman Cancer Gene database.


The tail gene PLZF is cancer associated according to Bushman Cancer Gene database.

Tumor Gene Set By Uniprot

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The head gene RARA is proto-oncogene or tumor suppresor gene according to Uniprot database.
The tail gene PLZF is not a proto-oncogene or tumor suppresor gene according to Uniprot database.

Oesophagus_Dataset

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Fusion gene RARA--PLZF is not found in oesophageal tumors from TCGA samples, which are published here.

Gliomas_Dataset

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Fusion gene RARA--PLZF is not found in the RNA-seq dataset of 272 glioblastomas, published here.

Prostate_Dataset

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The fusion gene pair RARA--PLZF information is not available in Prostate Dataset (150 prostate tumor RNAs, Robison et al, Integrative Clinical Genomics of Advanced Prostate Cancer, Cell, Vol. 161, May 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.05.001).

Pancreases_Dataset

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Fusion gene RARA--PLZF is not found in pancreatic tumor dataset, published here.

GTEx

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Fusion gene RARA--PLZF has not been found in a healthy sample (GTEx database of healthy tissues (thru FusionAnnotator)). A candidate fusion gene found in this set has a very high probability of being a false positive. [Fusion gene List compiled from FusionCatcher]

Klijin_Dataset

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The fusion gene pair RARA--PLZF information is not available in Klijn Dataset.

Fimereli_Dataset

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The fusion gene pair RARA--PLZF information is not found in Fimereli_Dataset.

Literature

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The fusion gene pair RARA--PLZF information is not found in known fusion genelist compiled from literature.

Cortex_Dataset

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Fusion gene RARA--PLZF is not found in Cortex_Dataset (Fusion genes found in healthy human brains (BA9 prefrontal cortex)) . A candidate fusion gene found in this dataset has a very high probability of being a false positive.

ChromothripsisDB

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The fusion gene pair RARA--PLZF information is not available in ChromothripsisDB database.